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  The varied topographical features, high rainfall and geologic conditions have favoured the formation of different ecosystems from shola forests on the mountain valleys to the mangrove forests along sea coasts and estuaries. The most outstanding feature of the State is the formation of tropical rainforests along the windward side of the Southern Western Ghats, which is lying parallel to the west coast. A small extent of area of the State is along the rain shadow region the Western Ghats, where the vegetation is dominated by dry deciduous forests and scrub jungles. The wet lands are mostly confined to the low land region of the State.Champion and Seth (1968) recognised 26 forest types in Kerala of which the major ones are the west coast tropical evergreen, west coast semi-evergreen, southern moist mixed deciduous, southern dry mixed deciduous, southern montane wet temperate forests, southern subtropical hill forests, southern montane wet temperate grasslands and littoral forests (mangroves). Certain edaphic types recognised are Bamboo brakes, Cane brakes, Reed brakes, Euphorbiaceous scrub jungles, laterite thorn forests and Myristica swamp forests. Based on dynamics they recognised secondary forests such as secondary evergreen, secondary moist deciduous, secondary dry deciduous, etc.
Agricultural and horticultural crops
Coastal vegetation
Hill top evergreen forests
Mangroves or tidal swamp forests
Southern dry mixed deciduous forests (dry deciduous forests)
Southern moist mixed deciduous forests
Southern montane wet grasslands
Southern montane wet temperate forests
Southern tropical thorn forests (scrub jungles)
Wetlands and aquatic vegetation
West coast semi-evergreen forests
West coast tropical evergreen forests

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