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  Man has surveyed remote galaxies and has stood on the surface of moon but has not so far come anywhere near to completing a taxonomic catalogue of the fewer than half a million species of higher plants growing on our planet (Burmmit et al., 2001). Botanists were exploring the floristic regions of the world for several centuries and their efforts have succeeded only in preparing a more realistic taxonomic account of the plants of Europe. The gravity of the situation is so severe in the tropics due to variety of reasons, the foremost being habitat destruction leading to loss of biodiversity, essential for the sustenance of life on earth. Thus, conservation of biodiversity gained prime consideration all over the world since the earth summit at Rio de Janeiro in 1992. The first and foremost process in ascertaining the biodiversity is the taxonomic treatment of living organisms. This can be achieved only through the process involving extensive exploration, identification and documentation. Earlier works in this branch of science in the Indian subcontinent resulted in the preparation of national and provincial floras. Further studies concentrated mainly on local and regional floras. These studies resulted in the finding of several species new to science as well as species with new distribution status. This enrichment is largely due to the higher attention paid to smaller biogeographic zones. As evolution and speciation are characteristics of all living organisms and are subjected to continued variation, frequent review of the natural wealth is inevitable to update their taxonomy. It is more important for the State of Kerala because of the characteristic flora and its unique features among other biogeographic regions of the country. With the goal of preparing a comprehensive flora of India, floras of many States were completed during the last two decades. Though, the flora of most of the districts and protected areas has been studied recently, a comprehensive flora of the State has not yet been prepared. The Institute has taken up a study entitled Biodiversity Documentation for Kerala which has 12 parts and flowering plants (Spermatophyta) is one among them.
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