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Southern moist mixed deciduous forests
   
 

This forest type is seen below 700 m. During wet season, because of the thick foliage, the canopy looks similar to that of semi-evergreen forests and therefore scarcely distinguishable. However, during dry season the moist deciduous forests reveal their true identity as the trees shed their leaves. The leafless period varies from a few weeks up to 5 months depending on the species. Among the trees, Bombax insigne, Hymenodictyon obovatum and Lagerstroemia microcarpa have a leafless period up to five months. Terminalia paniculata and Dalbergia sissoides have a leafless period of less than 2 weeks. In Moist deciduous forests also three tier stratification for trees can be met with.

 

The trees in the upper stratum are Albizia lebbeck, A. odoratissima, A. procera, Alstonia scholaris, Bombax ceiba, B. insigne, Dalbergia sissoides, Dillenia pentagyna, Gmelina arborea, Grewia tiliifolia, Haldina cordifolia, Hymenodictyon orixense, Lagerstroemia microcarpa, Lannea coromandelica, Melia dubia, Pterocarpus marsupium, Radermachera xylocarpa, Stereospermum colais, Tectona grandis, Terminalia bellirica, T. elliptica, T. paniculata, Tetrameles nudiflora and Xylia xylocarpa.

 

The middle stratum is composed mainly of, Bauhinia malabarica, B. racemosa, Briedelia retusa, Cassia fistula, Careya arborea, Cleistanthus collinus, Dalbergia lanceolaria, Ficus callosa, F. exasperata, F. racemosa, Garuga pinnata, Hymenodictyon obovatum, Macaranga peltata, Miliusa tomentosa, Olea dioica, Phyllanthus emblica, Sapindus trifoliata, Schleichera oleosa, Spondias pinnata, Sterculia guttata, S. villosa, Streblus asper, Strychnos nux-vomica, Trema orientalis, Zanthoxylum rhetsa, etc.

 

At the lower stratum, Casearia tomentosa, Cipadessa baccifera, Cochlospermum religiosum, Grewia glabra, G. nervosa, Helicteres isora, Holarrhena pubescens, Naringi crenulata, Securinega leucopyrus, Tabernaemontana heyneana, Tamilnadia uliginosa, Wrightia tinctoria, etc. are common.

 

The climbers include Acacia pennata, A. torta, Bauhinia scandens var. anguina, Briedelia scandens, Calycopteris floribunda, Cissus heyneana, C. latifolia, Dalbergia volubilis, Olax imbricata, Spatholobus roxburghii, Ziziphus rugosa, etc.

 

The undergrowth is composed of Abutilon persicum, Baliospermum montanum, Barleria prattensis, Chromolaena odorata, Canthium angustifolium, Clerodendrum serratum, Desmodium pulchellum, D. triangulare var. congestum, D. velutinum, Flemingia strobilifera, Lantana camara var. aculeata, etc.

   
 
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