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  Smilax zeylanica
  Citation:  Smilax zeylanica L., Sp. Pl. 1029. 1753; Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India 6: 309. 1892; Gamble, Fl. Pres. Madras 1518(1061). 1928; Manilal & Sivar., Fl. Calicut 292. 1982; Mohanan, Fl. Quilon Dist. 413. 1984; Ansari, Fl. Kasaragod Div. 389. 1985; Manilal, Fl. Silent Valley 323. 1988; Ramach. & V.J. Nair, Fl. Cannanore Dist. 478. 1988; Antony, Syst. Stud. Fl. Kottayam Dist. 401. 1989; Babu, Fl. Malappuram Dist. 813. 1990; Vajr., Fl. Palghat Dist. 511. 1990; M. Mohanan & Henry, Fl. Thiruvanthapuram 482. 1994; Subram., Fl. Thenmala Div. 391. 1995; Sasidh. et al., Bot. Stud. Med. Pl. Kerala 27, 34; Sasidh. & Sivar., Fl. Pl. Thrissur For. 471. 1996; Sasidh., Fl. Shenduruny WLS 345. 1997; Sivar. & Mathew, Fl. Nilambur 730. 1997; Sasidh., Fl. Periyar Tiger Reserve 458. 1998; Ravikumar & Ved, Illustr. Field Guide 100 Red Listed Med. Pl. 348. 2000 Sasidh., Fl. Parambikulam WLS 350. 2002; Mohanan & Sivad., Fl. Agasthyamala 727. 2002; Anil Kumar et al., Fl. Pathanamthitta 507. 2005; Sunil & Sivadasan, Fl. Alappuzha Dist. 696. 2009; Ratheesh Narayanan, Fl. Stud. Wayanad Dist. 875. 2009. Smilax macrophylla Roxb., Fl. Ind. 3: 793. 1832; Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India 6: 310. 1892.
  Malayalam Name(s): Arikanni, Kareelanchi, Karilanchi, Keeralanchi, Valiyakanni
  Tamil name(s):
  English name(s):
  Description: Climbing shrubs; stem prickly. Leaves simple, alternate, 6-12 x 3-6.5 cm, ovate-oblong or ovate-lanceolate, base rounded, acute to shortly cuspidate at apex, coriaceous, glabrous and glossy, 3-5-ribbed from base; petiole to 2 cm long, tendril from either sides of the petiole. Umbels axillary, 1-3; peduncles 2-3 cm long. Flowers unisexual; pedicels 5-6 mm long; bracts oblong. Perianth 6-partite, free, greenish, c. 7 mm long, oblong. Stamens in male flowers 6, free; filaments flat, apex callose; pistillode 0. Ovary in female flowers 3-lobed, 3-celled; ovules 1 or 2 per cell; style 3-fid; staminodes 3-6. Berry 0.8-1 x 0.6-0.8 cm; seeds 1-3, 3-4 mm across, globose.
  Habit: Climber
  Flowering & Fruiting: July-January
  District(s): All Districts
  Medicinal: Yes
  Habitat: Moist deciduous and semi-evergreen forests, also in the plains
  Distribution: Indo-Malesia
  Aquatic: No
  Epiphyte(s): No
  Saprophyte: No
  Stem parasite: No
  Root parasite: No
  Flower colour(s): Creamy, Green
  Weed: No
  Monocot/Dicot: Monocotyledonous Plants
  Exotic: No
  Garden: No
  Edible: No
  Vegetable: No
  Endemic to:
  IUCN status:
  Altitude: 500-1800
  Localities: Sholayar, Vellanimala, Chimmini, Choodal, Pachakkanam, Vellimala, Kuriarkutty, Pathenthode, Campshed area, Moozhiar, Ambayathode, Periyarum, Taliparamba, Teerthundamala, Old Devicolam, Mukkali forests, Pattanakadu, Thalichola, Nadugani ghats, Thenmalai,
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