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  Kaempferia rotunda
  Citation:  Kaempferia rotunda L., Sp. Pl. 1: 3. 1753; Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India 6: 222. 1890; Gamble, Fl. Pres. Madras 1484(1037). 1928; Mohanan, Fl. Quilon Dist. 407. 1984; Sabu, Taxonomic Phylogenetic Stud. Zingiberac. 281. 1991; Sivar. & Mathew, Fl. Nilambur 712. 1997; Sabu, Zingiberaceae and Costaceae of South India 215. 2006; Ratheesh Narayanan, Fl. Stud. Wayanad Dist. 867. 2009.
  Malayalam Name(s): Malan-kua, Chengazhi, Chengazhineerkizhangu
  Tamil name(s):
  English name(s): Indian crocus
  Description: Rhizome short, stout, 2.5-3.5 x 2 cm strongly aromatic; roots stout, fleshy, often terminating in ovoid or spindle-shaped, 2-5 x 0.5 cm, yellow-white tubers. Leafy shoot 50-65 cm high. Leaves few, radical, erect; lamina, 15-30 x 5-12 cm, oblong-lanceolate, with acute base and gradually acuminate apex, purple beneath, mottled green above, upper surface glabrous, lower surface densely covered with very short hairs; petiole 6-8 cm long; ligule small, 2-4 mm long, hairy. Inflorescence appearing before the leaves, shortly peduncled, enclosed within greenish-purple, narrow sheaths; 4-12 flowered, usually 1-2 flowers open at the same time. Bracts imbricating, 3-3.5 cm long, oblong, tip acute, tip sparsely hairy. Bracteoles upto 2.5 cm long, bidentate, glabrous. Calyx 5-6 cm long, unilaterally split, tip with two dorsal ridges, light violetish, transparent, sparsely hairy. Corolla tube slightly longer than the calyx, 6-7 cm long, slender, cylindric, nearly erect, obliquely funnel-shaped towards the mouth; lobes white, very narrow, c. 5 x 0.8 cm, lanceolate with acuminate tip. Labellum 5.5-6 x 2-2.5 cm, broadly ovate, deeply divided into 2 suborbicular lobes, lilac with deep violet in the centre, with many radiating violet lines. Lateral staminodes 5-5.5 x 1.6 cm, ovate elliptic, tip acuminate, white with a violet tinge towards the margin, a small cleft on the outer margin in the middle, glabrous. Filament short, erect, 5 mm long, sparsely pubescent; thecae 8 mm long, parallel, connective prolonged into a crest, c. 1.2 x 0.5 cm, broadly ovate, divided half way down into two, lanceolate or subulate segments, upper half light violetish. Style long, filiform, stigma slightly flattened and cupular, margin hairy. Epigynous glands two, filiform, erect, embracing the lower part of the style. Ovary 5 x 3 mm, tricarpellary, with many ovules on axile placenta, glabrous. Fruiting not common.
  Habit: Herb
  Flowering & Fruiting: March-May
  District(s): Malappuram, Thrissur, Thiruvananthapuram, Kozhikkode, Wayanad, Palakkad, Ernakulam
  Medicinal: Yes
  Habitat: Cultivated
  Distribution: Indo-Malesia
  Aquatic: No
  Epiphyte(s): No
  Saprophyte: No
  Stem parasite: No
  Root parasite: No
  Flower colour(s): White, Violet
  Weed: No
  Monocot/Dicot: Monocotyledonous Plants
  Exotic: No
  Garden: No
  Edible: No
  Vegetable: No
  Endemic to:
  IUCN status:
  Localities: Punchakolli

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