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  Hymenodictyon orixense
 
  Family: RUBIACEAE
  Citation:  Hymenodictyon orixense (Roxb.) Mabb., Taxon 31: 66. 1982; Antony, Syst. Stud. Fl. Kottayam Dist. 194. 1989; Ansari, Fl. Kasaragod Div. 194. 1985; Vajr., Fl. Palghat Dist. 233. 1990; M. Mohanan & Henry, Fl. Thiruvanthapuram 233. 1994; Sasidh. & Sivar., Fl. Pl. Thrissur For. 223. 1996; Sasidh., Fl. Shenduruny WLS 153. 1997; Sivar. & Mathew, Fl. Nilambur 329. 1997; Sasidh., Fl. Periyar Tiger Reserve 175. 1998; Sasidh., Fl. Chinnar WLS 150. 1999; Sasidh., Fl. Parambikulam WLS 151. 2002; Mohanan & Sivad., Fl. Agasthyamala 320. 2002; Sunil & Sivadasan, Fl. Alappuzha Dist. 355. 2009; Ratheesh Narayanan, Fl. Stud. Wayanad Dist. 420. 2009. Cinchona orixensis Roxb., Bot. Descr. Swietenia 21. 1793 & in Med. Facts Obs. 6: 152. 1795. Cinchona excelsa Roxb., Pl. Corom. t. 106. 1799. Hymenodictyon excelsum (Roxb.) Wall. in Roxb., Fl. Ind. 2: 149. 1824; Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India 3: 35. 1880; Gamble, Fl. Pres. Madras 589(416). 1921.
  Malayalam Name(s): Chakkathekku, Ithil, Ittiyila, Nicham, Malamkall, Perumtholi, Perantholi, Vellakdamabu
  Tamil name(s):
  English name(s): Kuthan
  Description: Deciduous trees, to 20 m high, bark 2 cm thick, grey to greyish-brown, rough, vertically fissured and cracked; blaze orange red; branches pubescent. Leaves simple, opposite, decussate; stipules interpetiolar, leafy, membranous, cauducous; petiole 3-20 cm long, stout, flattened, pubescent, slightly grooved above; lamina 10-25 x 8-20 cm, ovate or elliptic-ovate, base attenuate, apex acute or acuminate, margin entire, pubescent on both sides, chartaceous; lateral nerves 7-11 pairs, pinnate, prominent; intercostae reticulate, prominent. Flowers bisexual, pale green, 5-6 mm long, in axillary and terminal racemes; bracts 2, leafy, persistent; bracteoles linear; calyx tube short, truncate to globose, lobes 5, puberulous without, acute, deciduous; corolla tube slender, elongate, limb expanding, lobes 5, puberulous without; stamens 5, attached on the corolla limb; anthers lanceolate-sagitate; ovary 2-celled, inferior, ovules many; style long, slender, stigma fusiform. Fruit a capsule, 2.5 cm long, flat, elliptic, pendulous, 2 valved, brown; seeds many, broadly winged.
  Habit: Tree
  Flowering & Fruiting: July-January
  District(s): All Districts
  Medicinal: Yes
  Habitat: Deciduous forests, also in the plains
  Distribution: Indo-Malesia
  Aquatic: No
  Epiphyte(s): No
  Saprophyte: No
  Stem parasite: No
  Root parasite: No
  Flower colour(s): Green, Yellow
  Weed: No
  Monocot/Dicot: Dicotyledonous Plants
  Exotic: No
  Garden: No
  Edible: No
  Vegetable: No
  Endemic to:
  IUCN status:
  Altitude: 300-750
  Localities: Peechi, Rosemala, Alampetty, Koruthode, Vengoli, Alakode, Mangalam Dam area, Walayar, Edacode, Sharangakavu, Attayar, Chemungi
   
 
   
 
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