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  Hybanthus enneaspermus
  Citation:  Hybanthus enneaspermus (L.) F.v. Muell., Fragm. Phyt. Austr. 10: 81. 1876; Manilal & Sivar., Fl. Calicut 34. 1982; S.P. Banerjee & B.B. Pramanik, Fasc. Fl. Ind. 12: 2. 1983 & in B.D. Sharma & N.P. Balakr., Fl. India 2: 343. 1993; Mohanan, Fl. Quilon Dist. 71. 1984; Ansari, Fl. Kasaragod Div. 63. 1985; Ramach. & V.J. Nair, Fl. Cannanore Dist. 47. 1988; Antony, Syst. Stud. Fl. Kottayam Dist. 67. 1989; Babu, Fl. Malappuram Dist. 23. 1990; M. Mohanan & Henry, Fl. Thiruvanthapuram 58. 1994; Subram., Fl. Thenmala Div. 9. 1995; Sivar. & Mathew, Fl. Nilambur 55. 1997; Sasidh., Fl. Chinnar WLS 20. 1999; Mohanan & Sivad., Fl. Agasthyamala 70. 2002; Anil Kumar et al., Fl. Pathanamthitta 56. 2005; K. Vivek. in P. Daniel, Fl. Kerala 1: 251. 2005; Sunil & Sivadasan, Fl. Alappuzha Dist. 95. 2009. Viola enneasperma L., Sp. Pl. 937. 1753. Viola suffruticosa L., Sp. Pl. 937. 1753. Ionidium enneaspermum (L.) Vent., Jard. Malm. Sub. t. 27. 1803. Ionidium suffruticosum (L.) Ging. in DC., Prodr. 1: 311. 1824; Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India 1: 185. 1872; Gamble, Fl. Pres. Madras 49(35). 1915.
  Malayalam Name(s): Orithalthamara
  Tamil name(s):
  English name(s): Spade Flower
  Description: Annual herbs to 30 cm high; stem woody at base, scabrous. Leaves subsessile, 0.6-3 x 0.3-1 cm, linear-lanceolate or elliptic-lanceolate, base attenuate, margins distantly crenate, crenations scabrous hairy, apex acute, hirsute; stipules 1-2 mm long, linear-lanceolate. Flowers axillary, solitary; pedicel 0.6-1.5 cm long, slender. Sepals 5, subequal, 2-3 x 1 mm, lanceolate, acute, ciliate. Petals 5, pinkish, unequal; lower one 0.8-1.5 cm long, suborbicular, clawed, other 4 smaller, 3-5 mm long, elliptic or triangular-oblong. Stamens 5, c. 2 mm long. Ovary ovoid, 1-celled; ovules many; style clavate; stigma oblique. Capsules 5-8 mm long, ovoid. Seeds many, ovoid.
  Habit: Herb
  Flowering & Fruiting: July-November
  District(s): All Districts
  Medicinal: Yes
  Habitat: Dry deciduous forests and wastelands
  Distribution: Sri Lanka, India, China, Madagascar, Africa and Tropical Australia
  Aquatic: No
  Epiphyte(s): No
  Saprophyte: No
  Stem parasite: No
  Root parasite: No
  Flower colour(s): Red
  Weed: No
  Monocot/Dicot: Dicotyledonous Plants
  Exotic: No
  Garden: No
  Edible: No
  Vegetable: No
  Endemic to:
  IUCN status:
  Altitude: 300-500
  Localities: Chinnar, Champakkad, Nellimukal, Tellicherry, Cheruvathur, Manjeswar, Kayamkulam, Perakamanna, Thenmalai, Kappukadu
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