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  Euphorbia nivulia
  Citation:  Euphorbia nivulia Buch.-Ham., Trans. Linn. Soc. London 14: 286. 1824; Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India 5: 255. 1887; Gamble, Fl. Pres. Madras 1277(893). 1925; Sasidh. & Sivar., Fl. Pl. Thrissur For. 403. 1996; Sasidh., Fl. Parambikulam WLS 289. 2002; Anil Kumar et al., Fl. Pathanamthitta 446. 2005; N.P.Balakr. & Chakrab., Fam. Euphorbiaceae India 276. 2007; Sunil & Sivadasan, Fl. Alappuzha Dist. 630. 2009; Ratheesh Narayanan, Fl. Stud. Wayanad Dist. 737. 2009. Euphorbia neriifolia sensu Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India 5: 255. 1887, non L. 1753; Gamble, Fl. Pres. Madras 1277(893). 1925; Manilal & Sivar., Fl. Calicut 256. 1982; Mohanan, Fl. Quilon Dist. 366. 1984.
  Malayalam Name(s): Elakkalli, Ilakalli, Kallippala
  Tamil name(s):
  English name(s): Common milk hedge, Indian Spurge Tree
  Description: Large erect, fleshy deciduous, shrubs; branches terete; spines straight, 3-6 mm long, paired on flat corky base. Leaves alternate, sessile, 7-18 x 3-6.5 cm, oblanceolate-oblong or obovate, base cuneate, apex obtuse, fleshy. Cyathia usually paired, in subterminal cymes. Involucre broadly cupular, yellow; lobes fimbriate; glands 5, transversely oblong, fleshy, appendage absent. Male flowers with sterile florets, bracteolate. Female florets laterally pendulous. Style stout, branched above; stigmatic lobes flattened and slightly expanded. Capsule c. 5 mm across, 3-lobed. Seeds 4-angular, smooth.
  Habit: Shrub
  Flowering & Fruiting: March-April
  District(s): Palakkad, Alappuzha, Kollam, Pathanamthitta, Kozhikkode, Thrissur, Wayanad, Idukki, Kannur, Malappuram
  Medicinal: Yes
  Habitat: Rocky hills in moist and dry deciduous forests
  Distribution: India and Myanmar
  Aquatic: No
  Epiphyte(s): No
  Saprophyte: No
  Stem parasite: No
  Root parasite: No
  Flower colour(s): Red, Yellow
  Weed: No
  Monocot/Dicot: Dicotyledonous Plants
  Exotic: No
  Garden: No
  Edible: No
  Vegetable: No
  Endemic to:
  IUCN status:
  Altitude: 100-500
  Localities: Vazhachal, Vengoli, Chengannur
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