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  Citharexylum spinosum
  Citation:  Citharexylum spinosum L., Sp. Pl.: 625. 1753; Manilal & Sivar., Fl. Calicut 229. 1982; Sivar. & Manilal, Journ. Econ. Tax. Bot. 3: 813. 1982; Ansari, Fl. Kasaragod Div. 292. 1985; Babu, Fl. Malappuram Dist. 605. 1990; Sasidh. & Sivar., Fl. Pl. Thrissur For. 355. 1996; Sunil & Sivadasan, Fl. Alappuzha Dist. 557. 2009; Ratheesh Narayanan, Fl. Stud. Wayanad Dist. 646. 2009. Citharexylum fruticosum L., Syst. Nat. ed. 10, 2: 1115. 1759, nom. superfl. Citharexylum cinereum L., Sp. Pl. ed. 2: 872. 1763, nom. illeg. Citharexylum subserratum Sw., Nov. Gen. Pl. 91. 1788; Antony, Syst. Stud. Fl. Kottayam Dist. 321. 1989; Anil Kumar et al., Fl. Pathanamthitta 390. 2005. Citharexylum fruticosum L. var. subserratum (Sw.) Moldenke, Phytologia 1: 17. 1933; Ramach. & V.J. Nair, Fl. Cannanore Dist. 360. 1988; Vajr., Fl. Palghat Dist. 370. 1990; Rajendran & Daniel, Indian Verbenaceae 77. 2002. Citharexylum fruticosum f. subserratum (Sw.) Moldenke, Phytologia 36: 164. 1977.
  Malayalam Name(s): Parijatham
  Tamil name(s):
  English name(s): Fiddlewood, Spiny fiddlewood
  Description: Shrubs or trees; branchlets 4-angular, sometimes spiny. Leaves decussate-opposite, alternate or subopposite, ternate or verticillate, exstipulate, to 15 x 6 cm, elliptic to oblong-elliptic, acute, entire or dentate, usually with a pair of glands at base of lamina; petiole 0.5 to 1.5 cm long. Inflorescence axillary and terminal, recemiform or spicate, simple or branched, erect or drooping; flowers numerous, small, regular or somewhat zygomorphic; bractlets inconspicuous. Calyx cupular or tubular, 5-lobed or 5-toothed to truncate. Corolla white, 0.8-1 cm across, infundibular or hypocrateriform, usually 5-lobed, rarely 4- or 6-lobed, lobes slightly irregular; tube narrow, cylindric. Stamens 4, didynamous, rarely 5 or even 6; filaments attached at or above middle of corolla tube, included; the lower 2 forming staminodes. Ovary perfectly or imperfectly 4-loculed; ovule 1 in each locule; style terminal; stigma shortly 2-lobed. Fruit a drupe, partly enclosed by the enlarged calyx; pyrenes 2-loculed and 2 -seeded.
  Habit: Tree
  Flowering & Fruiting: April-September
  District(s): All Districts
  Habitat: Grown as garden/avenue tree
  Distribution: Native of West Indies; introduced and naturalised in many other countries
  Aquatic: No
  Epiphyte(s): No
  Saprophyte: No
  Stem parasite: No
  Root parasite: No
  Flower colour(s): Creamy, White
  Weed: No
  Monocot/Dicot: Dicotyledonous Plants
  Exotic: Yes
  Garden: Yes
  Edible: No
  Vegetable: No
  Endemic to:
  IUCN status:
  Localities: Peechi, Kalleli, Kalliassey, Panavally
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