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  Rubus rugosus
  Family: ROSACEAE
  Citation:  Rubus rugosus Smith in Rees, Cyclop. 30: Rubus n. 34. 1819; Gamble, Fl. Pres. Madras 441(312). 1919; Sasidh. et al., Bot. Stud. Med. Pl. Kerala 38. 1996; Sivar. & Mathew, Fl. Nilambur 249. 1997.
  Malayalam Name(s):
  Tamil name(s):
  English name(s):
  Description: Strongly growing, scrambling shrub. Stem hispid, greyish-yellow or dark brown, old stem glabrous. Prickles few, scattered, almost straight, weak. Leaves simple, palmate, ovate or suborbicular, 7 to 14 cm long, 6 to 12 cm broad, or broadly ovate, up to 25 cm long, up to 25 cm broad, regularly 5-lobed, lobes rounded or subacute, scarcely lobulate, deeply cordate at base, acute-acuminate or rounded at tip, crenate or irregularly serrate, subcoriaceous to coriaceous, minutely rugose with very small areoles and hirsute on the main nerves above, covered with greyish or dark brown, hirsute tomentum beneath. Petiole 3 to 7 cm long. Stipules joined to the stem, palmatifid or flabellately laciniate, up to 1.5 cm long, 1.3 cm broad, often bifid, hirsute outside, glabrous inside, deciduous. Inflorescence in few flowered, compact axillary or extra-axillary racemes or in terminal panicles, 3 to 7 cm long, hispid tomentose. Bracts palmatifid or broadly ovate and entire, hispid tomentose, deciduous. Pedicel upto 2 mm long. Calyx lobes triangular, the three outer ones larger, toothed at apex, the smaller ones acuminate. Petals broadly obovate to orbicular, 7 mm long, white. Carpels about 40 inserted on a convex densely hirsute receptacle. Fruit globose, upto 2 cm in diameter, juicy, purplish-black when ripe; drupelets few, large, upto 3 mm in diameter. Stones rugose and pitted.
  Habit: Shrub
  Flowering & Fruiting: June-July
  District(s): Malappuram, Idukki
  Habitat: Grasslands and shola forests
  Distribution: India to South East Asia
  Aquatic: No
  Epiphyte(s): No
  Saprophyte: No
  Stem parasite: No
  Root parasite: No
  Flower colour(s):
  Weed: No
  Monocot/Dicot: Dicotyledonous Plants
  Exotic: No
  Garden: No
  Edible: No
  Vegetable: No
  Endemic to:
  IUCN status:
  Localities: Vattavada, Nadugani ghats
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