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  Piper nigrum var. nigrum
  Citation:  Piper nigrum L., Sp. Pl. 28. 1753, var. nigrum; Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India 5: 90. 1886; Gamble, Fl. Pres. Madras 1206(845). 1925; Manilal & Sivar., Fl. Calicut 248. 1982; Mohanan, Fl. Quilon Dist. 338. 1984; Ansari, Fl. Kasaragod Div. 321. 1985; Manilal, Fl. Silent Valley 231. 1988; Ramach. & V.J. Nair, Fl. Cannanore Dist. 388. 1988; Babu, Fl. Malappuram Dist. 686. 1990; Vajr., Fl. Palghat Dist. 398. 1990; M. Mohanan & Henry, Fl. Thiruvanthapuram 384. 1994; Subram., Fl. Thenmala Div. 307. 1995; Sasidh. & Sivar., Fl. Pl. Thrissur For. 376. 1996; Sasidh., Fl. Shenduruny WLS 259. 1997; Sivar. & Mathew, Fl. Nilambur 578. 1997; Sasidh., Fl. Periyar Tiger Reserve 339. 1998; Ravikumar & Ved, Illustr. Field Guide 100 Red Listed Med. Pl. 293. 2000 Sasidh., Fl. Parambikulam WLS 264. 2002; Anil Kumar et al., Fl. Pathanamthitta 418. 2005; Sunil & Sivadasan, Fl. Alappuzha Dist. 607. 2009; Ratheesh Narayanan, Fl. Stud. Wayanad Dist. 688. 2009.
  Malayalam Name(s): Kurumulaku, Mulakukodi, Nallamulaka
  Tamil name(s): Kali Mirch
  English name(s): Black pepper, Common pepper, Pepper
  Description: Glabrous climbers. Leaves simple, alternate, to 16 x 10 cm, ovate, acuminate at apex, acute, rounded or truncate at base, 7-nerved, nervules subparallel; petiole to 2.5 cm long. Spikes to 12 cm long, slender; peduncles to 2.5 cm long; bracts united forming a cup below the flower. Flowers closely placed; stamens 2. Drupes 5 mm across, globose, smooth, deep red; stigmas 3-5, recurved.
  Habit: Climber
  Flowering & Fruiting: July-March
  District(s): All Districts
  Medicinal: Yes
  Habitat: Evergreen and semi-evergreen forests, also cultivated
  Distribution: Peninsular India and Sri Lanka, cultivated elsewhere
  Aquatic: No
  Epiphyte(s): No
  Saprophyte: No
  Stem parasite: No
  Root parasite: No
  Flower colour(s): Green, Yellow
  Weed: No
  Monocot/Dicot: Dicotyledonous Plants
  Exotic: No
  Garden: No
  Edible: No
  Vegetable: Yes
  Endemic to:
  IUCN status:
  Altitude: 600-2000
  Localities: Vazhachal, Ennakkapally, Pooppara, Pathenthode, Campshed area, Angamoozhy, Taliparamba, Lock-hert gap, Mukkali forests, Minnampara forest, Pathiyoor, Thalichola, Kulathupuzha, Hereford, Ariankavu, Thenmalai
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