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  Mussaenda frondosa
  Citation:  Mussaenda frondosa L., Syst. Nat. (ed.10) 2: 931.1759; Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India 3: 89. 1880; Gamble, Fl. Pres. Madras 610(430). 1921; Manilal & Sivar., Fl. Calicut 145. 1982; Antony, Syst. Stud. Fl. Kottayam Dist. 198. 1989; Subram., Fl. Thenmala Div. 172. 1995; Sivar. & Mathew, Fl. Nilambur 337. 1997; Mohanan & Sivad., Fl. Agasthyamala 335. 2002; Ratheesh Narayanan, Fl. Stud. Wayanad Dist. 430. 2009. Mussaenda belilla Buch.-Ham., Trans. Linn. Soc. London 14: 203. 1824; Mohanan, Fl. Quilon Dist. 214. 1984; Ansari, Fl. Kasaragod Div. 198. 1985; Ramach. & V.J. Nair, Fl. Cannanore Dist. 225. 1988; Babu, Fl. Malappuram Dist. 339. 1990; Vajr., Fl. Palghat Dist. 237. 1990; M. Mohanan & Henry, Fl. Thiruvanthapuram 238. 1994; Subram., Fl. Thenmala Div. 171. 1995; Sasidh. & Sivar., Fl. Pl. Thrissur For. 228. 1996; Sasidh., Fl. Shenduruny WLS 160. 1997; Sivar. & Mathew, Fl. Nilambur 337. 1997; Sasidh., Fl. Periyar Tiger Reserve 180. 1998; Sasidh., Fl. Parambikulam WLS 155. 2002; Mohanan & Sivad., Fl. Agasthyamala 335. 2002; Anil Kumar et al., Fl. Pathanamthitta 258. 2005; Sunil & Sivadasan, Fl. Alappuzha Dist. 360. 2009. Mussaenda laxa (Hook. f.) Hutch. ex Gamble, Fl. Pres. Madras 610(430). 1921; Sasidh. et al., Bot. Stud. Med. Pl. Kerala 12.1996. Mussaenda frondosa L. var. laxa Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India 3: 89. 1880.
  Malayalam Name(s): Parathole, Vellila, Vellilam, Vellilathaali, Vellimayithali, Vellapperuma
  Tamil name(s):
  English name(s): Schizomussaenda
  Description: Straggling shrubs; branchlets pubescent. Leaves simple, opposite, 6-10 x 4-6 cm, broadly ovate, caudate acuminate at apex, base rounded, sparsely hairy on both surfaces; petiole to 1.5 cm long; stipules 3-4 mm long, ovate, bifid at apex. Cymes terminal, lax, tomentose. Flowers 5-merous. Bracts and bracteoles linear, 1-1.5 cm, hairy. Calyx-lobes 5, 0.8-1 cm long, lanceolate, hairy, one of the calyx lobes transformed into a showy, white, pubescent, leaf-like structure, 8-12 x c. 4.5 cm. Corolla 2.5-3 cm long, funnel-shaped dialated above middle, orange-red or yellow, tomentose outside, villous at mouth; lobes 6-7 mm long, ovate-lanceolate. Stamens 5, included or exserted. Berry c. 1 cm across, globose.
  Habit: Shrub
  Flowering & Fruiting: September-March
  District(s): All Districts
  Medicinal: Yes
  Habitat: Moist deciduous and semi-evergreen forests, also in the plains
  Distribution: Peninsular India
  Aquatic: No
  Epiphyte(s): No
  Saprophyte: No
  Stem parasite: No
  Root parasite: No
  Flower colour(s): Orange, Yellow
  Weed: No
  Monocot/Dicot: Dicotyledonous Plants
  Exotic: No
  Garden: No
  Edible: No
  Vegetable: No
  Endemic to: Peninsular India
  IUCN status:
  Altitude: 800-1200
  Localities: Ontangadi, Anachal - way to Vellathuval, Manimooli, Nedumkayam, Thenmalai, Athirumala
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