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  Manihot esculenta
 
  Family: EUPHORBIACEAE
  Citation:  Manihot esculenta Crantz., Inst. Rei. Herb. 1: 167. 1766; Manilal & Sivar., Fl. Calicut 259. 1982; Mohanan, Fl. Quilon Dist. 375. 1984; Ansari, Fl. Kasaragod Div. 343. 1985; Ramach. & V.J. Nair, Fl. Cannanore Dist. 428. 1988; Babu, Fl. Malappuram Dist. 724. 1990; Vajr., Fl. Palghat Dist. 440. 1990; M. Mohanan & Henry, Fl. Thiruvanthapuram 422. 1994; Subram., Fl. Thenmala Div. 331. 1995; Sivar. & Mathew, Fl. Nilambur 630. 1997; Anil Kumar et al., Fl. Pathanamthitta 459. 2005; N.P.Balakr. & Chakrab., Fam. Euphorbiaceae India 230. 2007; Sunil & Sivadasan, Fl. Alappuzha Dist. 642. 2009; Ratheesh Narayanan, Fl. Stud. Wayanad Dist. 756. 2009. Jatropha manihot L., Sp. Pl. 1007. 1753. Manihot utilissima Phol., Pl. Bras. Ic. 1: 32. 1827; Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India 5: 239. 1887; Gamble, Fl. Pres. Madras 1346(942). 1925.
  Malayalam Name(s): Maracheeni, Marakizhangu, Kappa, Kollikizhangu, Poolakizhangu
  Tamil name(s):
  English name(s): Topioca plant, Cassava, Manioc
  Description: Shrubs; bark smooth, yellowish grey. Leaf-lobes 7-18 x 2.6-5.5 cm, oblanceolate, base cuneate, apex shortly acuminate, dark green above, pale greenish below; petiole 12-23 cm long, light greenish to red. Inflorescence lax, with 3-5 together in fascicles. Male flowers: perianth divided to halfway or more, greenish-white with reddish-white bands inside; anthers yellow; disc yellow to light orange. Female flowers: perianth green with red margin and midrib; disc pink; ovary with 6 longitudinal ridges. Capsule c. 2.5 cm across, subglobose, 3-winged when young, smooth later. Seeds up to 12 mm long.
  Habit: Shrub
  Flowering & Fruiting: December-March
  District(s): All Districts
  Medicinal:
  Habitat: Cultivated
  Distribution: Native of Brazil; now common throughout the tropics
  Aquatic: No
  Epiphyte(s): No
  Saprophyte: No
  Stem parasite: No
  Root parasite: No
  Flower colour(s): Pink, Creamy
  Weed: No
  Monocot/Dicot: Dicotyledonous Plants
  Exotic: Yes
  Garden: No
  Edible: No
  Vegetable: Yes
  Endemic to:
  IUCN status:
  Altitude:
  Localities: Maniyaar, Taliparamba, Pooyamkutty, Nilambur, Kulathupuzha, Damapady
   
 
   
 
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