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  Ichnocarpus frutescens
  Citation:  Ichnocarpus frutescens (L.) R. Br. in Ait.f., Hort. Kew. (ed. 2) 2: 69. 1811; Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India 3: 669. 1882; Gamble, Fl. Pres. Madras 820(577). 1923; Manilal & Sivar., Fl. Calicut 162. 1982; Mohanan, Fl. Quilon Dist. 254. 1984; Ansari, Fl. Kasaragod Div. 228. 1985; Ramach. & V.J. Nair, Fl. Cannanore Dist. 278. 1988; Antony, Syst. Stud. Fl. Kottayam Dist. 241. 1989; Babu, Fl. Malappuram Dist. 417. 1990; Vajr., Fl. Palghat Dist. 281. 1990; M. Mohanan & Henry, Fl. Thiruvanthapuram 292. 1994; Subram., Fl. Thenmala Div. 215. 1995; Sasidh. et al., Bot. Stud. Med. Pl. Kerala 9. 1996; Sasidh. & Sivar., Fl. Pl. Thrissur For. 280. 1996; Sasidh., Fl. Shenduruny WLS 203. 1997; Sivar. & Mathew, Fl. Nilambur 414. 1997; Sasidh., Fl. Periyar Tiger Reserve 243. 1998; Sasidh., Fl. Parambikulam WLS 189. 2002; Mohanan & Sivad., Fl. Agasthyamala 439. 2002; Anil Kumar et al., Fl. Pathanamthitta 311. 2005; Sunil & Sivadasan, Fl. Alappuzha Dist. 424. 2009; Ratheesh Narayanan, Fl. Stud. Wayanad Dist. 521. 2009. Apocynum frutescens L., Sp. Pl. 213. 1753.
  Malayalam Name(s): Palvalli, Parvalli
  Tamil name(s):
  English name(s): Black creeper
  Description: Climbers, branchlets brown-tomentose. Leaves simple, opposite, 4-6 x 3 cm, ovate, apex obtusely acute, base rounded, nerves 5 pairs, brown-pubescent below; petiole to 5 mm long. Flowers 3.5 mm long, in terminal or axillary panicled cymes; pedicels 3 mm long. Calyx 1 mm long, lobes ovate, acute, pubescent. Corolla white, salver shaped, contracted at mouth, tube 2 mm long, hairy inside, throat densely white-villous, lobes twisted, oblong, acuminate. Stamens included, anthers deeply sagitate at base, apiculate at apex. Carpels 2, free, stigma columnar. Mericarps follicular, to 15 cm long, slender, rusty puberulus; seeds many, compressed, crowned with long silky coma.
  Habit: Climber
  Flowering & Fruiting: August-March
  District(s): All Districts
  Medicinal: Yes
  Habitat: Moist and dry deciduous forests, also in the plains
  Distribution: Indo-Malesia and Australia
  Aquatic: No
  Epiphyte(s): No
  Saprophyte: No
  Stem parasite: No
  Root parasite: No
  Flower colour(s): White
  Weed: No
  Monocot/Dicot: Dicotyledonous Plants
  Exotic: No
  Garden: No
  Edible: No
  Vegetable: No
  Endemic to:
  IUCN status:
  Altitude: 400-700
  Localities: Peechi, Vellanimala, Kattalappara, Pamba, Vengoli, Adoor, Ezhimala, Kannoth, Nedumpoyil, Periyarum, Taliparamba, Parassanikkadavu, Malampuzha, Mathur, Mukkali forests, Thiruvizhamkunnu, Panavally, Nedumkayam, Vandalodu, Thenmalai, Kompa, Meenmutty
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