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  Heracleum candolleanum
  Citation:  Heracleum candolleanum (Wight & Arn.) Gamble, Fl. Pres. Madras 565(399). 1919; P.K. Mukh. & Constance, Umbell. India 243. 1993; Sasidh. & Sivar., Fl. Pl. Thrissur For. 209. 1996; Sasidh., Fl. Periyar Tiger Reserve 162. 1998; Sasidh., Fl. Chinnar WLS 142. 1999; Ravikumar & Ved, Illustr. Field Guide 100 Red Listed Med. Pl. 186. 2000 Sasidh., Fl. Parambikulam WLS 141. 2002; Mohanan & Sivad., Fl. Agasthyamala 298. 2002; Ratheesh Narayanan, Fl. Stud. Wayanad Dist. 403. 2009. Pastinaca candolleana Wight & Arn., Prodr. 372. 1834. Heracleum rigens Wall. ex DC. var. candolleana (Wight & Arn.) Clarke in Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India 2: 715. 1879, p. p. Heracleum rigens var. ligusticifolium (Wight) Clarke in Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India 2: 716. 1879. Heracleum courtallense Gamble, Fl. Pres. Madras 565(399). 1919.
  Malayalam Name(s): Kattugeerakam, Kattumally, Njara
  Tamil name(s):
  English name(s):
  Description: Shrubs, stem ridged. Leaves alternate, 35-45 x 20-25 cm, 1 or 2 pinnate; leaflets 7-9 or more, to 15 x 10 cm, lobed, apex acute, serrate, scabrous, coriaceous. Umbels compound, terminal, corymbose; secondary peduncles to 6 cm long; rays 13, each 3-5 cm long, spreading; pedicels 6-10 mm long, many-together, spreading. Flowers 5-merous, 2 mm across. Calyx 5-toothed. Petals 3, ovate, acuminate, with a strong midrib, glabrous. Stamens 5, free, anthers ovate. Ovary compressed. Fruit 7-10 x 4-7 mm, biconvex, dorsally compressed, winged, glabrous.
  Habit: Shrub
  Flowering & Fruiting: April-October
  District(s): Palakkad, Idukki, Thiruvananthapuram, Thrissur, Wayanad, Kannur
  Medicinal: Yes
  Habitat: Shola forests and grasslands
  Distribution: Southern Western Ghats
  Aquatic: No
  Epiphyte(s): No
  Saprophyte: No
  Stem parasite: No
  Root parasite: No
  Flower colour(s): White, Yellow
  Weed: No
  Monocot/Dicot: Dicotyledonous Plants
  Exotic: No
  Garden: No
  Edible: No
  Vegetable: No
  Endemic to: Southern Western Ghats
  IUCN status:
  Altitude: 1500-2100
  Localities: Karimala Hills, Pothumala, Mangaladevi, Karimalagopuram, Lock-hert gap, Pongalapara, Agasthymala peak
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