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  Helicteres isora
  Citation:  Helicteres isora L., Sp. Pl. 963. 1753; Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India 1: 365. 1874; Gamble, Fl. Pres. Madras 107(77). 1915; Manilal & Sivar., Fl. Calicut 51. 1982; Mohanan, Fl. Quilon Dist. 93. 1984; Ansari, Fl. Kasaragod Div. 80. 1985; Manilal, Fl. Silent Valley 31. 1988; Ramach. & V.J. Nair, Fl. Cannanore Dist. 67. 1988; Antony, Syst. Stud. Fl. Kottayam Dist. 81. 1989; Babu, Fl. Malappuram Dist. 79. 1990; Vajr., Fl. Palghat Dist. 89. 1990; K.C. Malick in B.D. Sharma & Sanjappa, Fl. India 3: 426. 1993; M. Mohanan & Henry, Fl. Thiruvanthapuram 85. 1994; Subram., Fl. Thenmala Div. 41. 1995; Sasidh. et al., Bot. Stud. Med. Pl. Kerala 12, 19; Sasidh. & Sivar., Fl. Pl. Thrissur For. 66. 1996; Sasidh., Fl. Shenduruny WLS 42. 1997; Sivar. & Mathew, Fl. Nilambur 99. 1997; Sasidh., Fl. Periyar Tiger Reserve 36. 1998; Sasidh., Fl. Chinnar WLS 41. 1999; Pradeep, Fl. Vellarimala 27. 2000; Sasidh., Fl. Parambikulam WLS 33. 2002; Mohanan & Sivad., Fl. Agasthyamala 107. 2002; Anil Kumar et al., Fl. Pathanamthitta 94. 2005; V. Chithra in P. Daniel, Fl. Kerala 1: 456. 2005; Sunil & Sivadasan, Fl. Alappuzha Dist. 137. 2009; Ratheesh Narayanan, Fl. Stud. Wayanad Dist. 162. 2009.
  Malayalam Name(s): Edampiri-Valampiri, Eeswaramoori, Kaivum, Kayinaru, Kayivilanaru, Kayivoolam, Kayyunanna, Valampiri
  Tamil name(s):
  English name(s): East Indian screw tree
  Description: Large shrubs or small trees; bark pale greyish, finely wrinkled; young shoots stellate- tomentose. Leaves simple, alternate, 5-12 x 3-8 cm, obovate to suborbicular, apex acute or acuminate, base cordate, margin irregularly crenate- serrate; 3-5-nerved at the base, scabrous above and stellately tomentose below; petioles to 1.2 cm long. Flowers axillary, solitary or in few-flowered cymes; bracts 2-3 mm long, linear, 2 brown glands present in the axil of bracts; pedicel to 6 mm long. Calyx slightly yellow, persistent, tubular, splitting in to 5 irregular lobes; tube 1.5-2 cm long , densely stellate hairy without. Petals 5, unequal, 2-2.5 cm long, obovate, clawed, crimson, fading to pale blue. Staminal column 3-3.5 cm long, cylindric; stamens 10 ; staminodes 5. Ovary 2-2.5 mm long, placed at tip of gynophore, 5-lobed, 5-celled; ovules many; style 5; stigma subulate. Follicles 5, 4-6 cm long, spirally twisted, stellate-tomentose, beaked; seeds 2-3 mm long, angular, black, wrinkled.
  Habit: Shrub
  Flowering & Fruiting: September-March
  District(s): All Districts
  Medicinal: Yes
  Habitat: Deciduous forests, also in plantations and plains
  Distribution: Indo-Malesia, China and Australia
  Aquatic: No
  Epiphyte(s): No
  Saprophyte: No
  Stem parasite: No
  Root parasite: No
  Flower colour(s): Red
  Weed: No
  Monocot/Dicot: Dicotyledonous Plants
  Exotic: No
  Garden: No
  Edible: No
  Vegetable: No
  Endemic to:
  IUCN status:
  Altitude: 500-1200
  Localities: Peechi, Kattalappara, Ichampetty, Pachakkanam, Chindaki forest, Vengoli, Moozhiar, Ranni, Aruvanpara, Tolpetty, Begur, Payyanur, Taliparamba, Kaikatty, Mukkali forests, Siruvani slopes, Erulankadu-Malapuzha, Alleppey town, Karimpuzha, Vandalodu, Thenmala
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