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  Diospyros paniculata
  Citation:  Diospyros paniculata Dalz. in Hook.'s J. Bot. Kew Gard. Misc. 4: 109. 1852; Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India 3: 570. 1882; Gamble, Fl. Pres. Madras 775(544). 1923; Mohanan, Fl. Quilon Dist. 244. 1984; Ramach. & V.J. Nair, Fl. Cannanore Dist. 265. 1988; Vajr., Fl. Palghat Dist. 269. 1990; M. Mohanan & Henry, Fl. Thiruvanthapuram 280. 1994; Subram., Fl. Thenmala Div. 208. 1995; Sasidh. et al., Bot. Stud. Med. Pl. Kerala 30. 1996; Sasidh. & Sivar., Fl. Pl. Thrissur For. 271. 1996; Sasidh., Fl. Shenduruny WLS 194. 1997; Sivar. & Mathew, Fl. Nilambur 400. 1997; Sasidh., Fl. Periyar Tiger Reserve 231. 1998; Ravikumar & Ved, Illustr. Field Guide 100 Red Listed Med. Pl. 118. 2000 Sasidh., Fl. Parambikulam WLS 182. 2002; Mohanan & Sivad., Fl. Agasthyamala 418. 2002; Anil Kumar et al., Fl. Pathanamthitta 300. 2005; V. Singh, Monogr. Indian Diospyros 189. 2005; Ratheesh Narayanan, Fl. Stud. Wayanad Dist. 500. 2009.
  Malayalam Name(s): Karivella, Karumaram, Karivella, Illakatta, Thuvara
  Tamil name(s):
  English name(s):
  Description: Dioecious trees, to 15 m high, bark 7-8 mm thick, smooth, black often with grey blotches; branchlets angular, pubescent. Leaves simple, alternate, 12-20 x 4-7 cm, oblong or oblong-lanceolate, base acute, round or cuneate, apex acute, acuminate or obtusely acuminate, margin entire, reflexed near the base, glabrous, coriaceous; petiole 7-10 mm long, stout, wrinkled, puberulent when young; lateral nerves 6-9 pairs, pinnate, prominent, intercostae reticulate, surface finely reticulate. Flowers unisexual greenish-yellow. Male flowers: 3-5 together in short panicled cymes with a pair of ovate-cordate bracts; bracts 1 x 0.8 cm, pubescent; calyx 10 x 12 mm, globose, 5-angled, minutely hispid, deeply lobed; lobes-5, ovate-obtuse, margin reflexed, prominently veined, pubescent; corolla dull or creamy white, tube 12 mm long, pentagonal, narrowed above, hispid; lobes 5, 8 x 4 mm, oblong; stamens 16-20 in pairs, equal; anthers linear, acute; pistillode absent. Female flowers; solitary, axillary; pedicel to 2 cm long; bracts larger than those of the male flowers; calyx glabrescent; staminodes 10; ovary superior, 4-celled, ovule 1 in each cell, tomentose; stigma 4, unequal. Fruit a berry, 3-4 x 2-3 cm, ovoid to obovoid, obtuse, obtusely 5-angled, yellowish-brown, puberulous; calyx 1.5 x 3 cm, saccate; seeds few, 2 x 0.8 cm.
  Habit: Tree
  Flowering & Fruiting: January-April
  District(s): Palakkad, Kollam, Idukki, Pathanamthitta, Malappuram, Kannur, Thiruvananthapuram, Thrissur, Kozhikkode, Wayanad
  Habitat: Evergreen and semi-evergreen forests
  Distribution: Peninsular India
  Aquatic: No
  Epiphyte(s): No
  Saprophyte: No
  Stem parasite: No
  Root parasite: No
  Flower colour(s): Green, White
  Weed: No
  Monocot/Dicot: Dicotyledonous Plants
  Exotic: No
  Garden: No
  Edible: No
  Vegetable: No
  Endemic to: Peninsular India
  IUCN status:
  Altitude: 500-1200
  Localities: Sholayar, Vellanimala, Vazhani, Kattalappara, Kulathupuzha, Koruthode, Neyyandanchira, Moozhiar, Ranni, Konni, Nedumpoyil, Chandanathode, Kaikatty, Vattappara-Inchikuzhi, Boneccord, Suryakanthi, Koomanpara, Thenmalai, Kulathupuzha, Bonaccord, Athirumala
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