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  Cullenia exarillata
  Citation:  Cullenia exarillata Robyns, Bull. Jard. Bot. Nat. Belg. 40: 249. 1970; Mohanan, Fl. Quilon Dist. 92. 1984; Manilal, Fl. Silent Valley 30. 1988; Ramach. & V.J. Nair, Fl. Cannanore Dist. 66. 1988; Vajr., Fl. Palghat Dist. 87. 1990; M.P. Nayar & Biswas in B.D. Sharma & Sanjappa, Fl. India 3: 402. 1993; M. Mohanan & Henry, Fl. Thiruvanthapuram 84. 1994; Sasidh. et al., Bot. Stud. Med. Pl. Kerala 22,30. 1996; Sasidh. & Sivar., Fl. Pl. Thrissur For. 64. 1996; Sivar. & Mathew, Fl. Nilambur 98. 1997; Sasidh., Fl. Shenduruny WLS 41. 1997; Sasidh., Fl. Periyar Tiger Reserve 35. 1998; Sasidh., Fl. Chinnar WLS 40. 1999; Sasidh., Fl. Parambikulam WLS 31. 2002; Mohanan & Sivad., Fl. Agasthyamala 105. 2002; Anil Kumar et al., Fl. Pathanamthitta 94. 2005; S.K. Srivastava & K. Vivek. in P. Daniel, Fl. Kerala 1: 448. 2005; Ratheesh Narayanan, Fl. Stud. Wayanad Dist. 161. 2009. Cullenia excelsa Wight, Ic. t. 1761, 1762.1851,p.p.; Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India 1:350.1874; Gamble, Fl. Pres. Madras 101(73).1915. Cullenia rosayroana Kosterm., Comm. For. Res. Inst. Indones. Bogor 51: 4, f.2e & 3. 1956 & in Reinwardtia 4: 72. 1956,p.p.
  Malayalam Name(s): Alanki, Karayni, Kurunguplavu, Mullenchankka, Mullenpali, Vediplavu
  Tamil name(s):
  English name(s):
  Description: Evergreen trees, to 40 m high; bole straight, buttressed; bark 10-15 mm thick, grey mottled with white, smooth; outer bark 1-2 mm thick, dead; blaze pink; branches horizontal; older branches furnished with large tubercles; young branchlets and underside of leaves densely covered with peltate scales. Leaves simple, alternate, distichous, estipulate, 7.5-16 x 2.5-6 cm, elliptic, oblong, oblong-lanceolate or elliptic-lanceolate, apex acute or acuminate, base rounded or obtuse, margin entire, coriaceous, dark green and shiny above, covered with orange peltate scales beneath; lateral nerves many, parallel, slender, obscure, lepidote beneath, midrib raised beneath; secondary lateral present; intercostae reticulate, faint; petiole 13-25 mm, stout, lepidote, grooved above. Flowers bisexual, 3-3.5 cm long, brownish-yellow, densely clustered on tubercles on old branches; pedicel 2-3 cm long; epicalyx tubular, 1-1.5 cm long, campanulate, 4-5 lobed at apex, densely lepidote outside, whitish puberulus inside. Calyx tube 3-3.5 cm long, 5 lobed at apex, densely lepidote outside. Corolla absent. Staminal tube 3-5 cm long, 5 lobed at apex with many stamens along the margin; anthers globose, circum sessile. Ovary pentangular, superior, syncarpous, densely lepidote, 5 locular; ovules 2 in each locule; style woody, with prominent scales at base; stigma capitate, densely papillose. Fruit a capsule, 12-20 cm across, almost globose with acute tip, spiny, 5 valved; seeds 2 in each locule, 4-4.5 x 2-2.5 cm dark brown, shining.
  Habit: Tree
  Flowering & Fruiting: January-November
  District(s): Palakkad, Kollam, Idukki, Pathanamthitta, Malappuram, Kannur, Thiruvananthapuram, Thrissur, Wayanad
  Habitat: Evergreen forests
  Distribution: Southern Western Ghats
  Aquatic: No
  Epiphyte(s): No
  Saprophyte: No
  Stem parasite: No
  Root parasite: No
  Flower colour(s): Brown, Yellow
  Weed: No
  Monocot/Dicot: Dicotyledonous Plants
  Exotic: No
  Garden: No
  Edible: No
  Vegetable: No
  Endemic to: Southern Western Ghats
  IUCN status:
  Altitude: 1000-1300
  Localities: Sholayar, Ponmudi, Kallar, Olikkudy, Chokkampetti, Chandanathode, Pothumala, Nelliyampathy, Karimala, Kakki hills, Damsite, Aruvanpara, Mukkali forests, Ayyappankovil-Kaikatty area, Nadugani ghats, Meenmutty, Athirumala
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