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  Cissus quadrangularis
  Family: VITACEAE
  Citation:  Cissus quadrangularis L., Mant. Pl. 1: 39. 1767; Gamble, Fl. Pres. Madras 233(167). 1915; Antony, Syst. Stud. Fl. Kottayam Dist. 108. 1989; Babu, Fl. Malappuram Dist. 135. 1990; M. Mohanan & Henry, Fl. Thiruvanthapuram 121. 1994; Sasidh., Fl. Chinnar WLS 71. 1999; Shetty & P. Singh in N.P. Singh et al., Fl. India 5: 288. 2000; Anil Kumar et al., Fl. Pathanamthitta 135. 2005; B.V. Shetty & P. Singh in P. Daniel, Fl. Kerala 1: 753. 2005; Sunil & Sivadasan, Fl. Alappuzha Dist. 179. 2009; Ratheesh Narayanan, Fl. Stud. Wayanad Dist. 235. 2009. Vitis quadrangularis (L.) Wall. ex Wight, Cat. Ind. Pl. 26.1833; Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India 1:645.1875.
  Malayalam Name(s): Chanamparanda, Changalamparanda, Peranta
  Tamil name(s):
  English name(s): Adament creeper, Bone setter, Edible-stemmed vine
  Description: Rambling, succulent, glabrous, deciduous shrubs; stem 4-angular, winged or ridged at angles, constricted at nodes; tendril simple. Leaves simple, entire or 3-lobed, 2-5 x 2-5 cm, ovate-suborbicular or subreniform, base truncate, margin distantly spinulose-crenate, apex obtuse, thick-coriaceous; petiole to 1 cm long. Flowers in leaf-opposed, peduncled, umbellate cymes. Calyx-tube obscurely 4-lobed, c. 2 mm long, reddish. Petals c. 2.5 mm long, ovate, acute, greenish-yellow, recurved. Stamens 4; filaments to 2 cm long; anthers yellow. Disk 4-lobed, yellow. Ovary c. 1mm long, 2-celled; ovules 2 per cell. Berry c. 7 mm across, subglobose. Seeds black, smooth.
  Habit: Climber
  Flowering & Fruiting: June-January
  District(s): All Districts
  Medicinal: Yes
  Habitat: Dry deciduous forests, also in the plains
  Distribution: Widespread in the drier parts of Africa, Arabia and Indo-Malesia
  Aquatic: No
  Epiphyte(s): No
  Saprophyte: No
  Stem parasite: No
  Root parasite: No
  Flower colour(s): Red, Yellow
  Weed: No
  Monocot/Dicot: Dicotyledonous Plants
  Exotic: No
  Garden: No
  Edible: No
  Vegetable: No
  Endemic to:
  IUCN status:
  Localities: Chinnar, Palapetty, Thottappally
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