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  Caesalpinia sappan
  Family: FABACEAE/LEGUMINOSAE (Subfam.: Caesalpinioideae)
  Citation:  Caesalpinia sappan L., Sp. Pl. 381. 1753; Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India 2: 255. 1878; Gamble, Fl. Pres. Madras 394(279). 1919; Manilal & Sivar., Fl. Calicut 98. 1982; Sanjappa, Legumes Ind. 12. 1992; Subram., Fl. Thenmala Div. 120. 1995; Sunil & Sivadasan, Fl. Alappuzha Dist. 262. 2009; Ratheesh Narayanan, Fl. Stud. Wayanad Dist. 331. 2009.
  Malayalam Name(s): Chappangam, Patang, Sappannam
  Tamil name(s):
  English name(s): Brazil wood, Sappan wood
  Description: Trees, to 10 m high, sparsely armed with short straight or recurved prickles. Leaves bipinnate, alternate; stipules spiniform, to 3-5 mm long; rachis 20-40 cm long, slender, pubescent, pulvinate; pinnae 10-14 pairs, 2.5-10 cm long, slender; a spine present at the junction between pinnae pairs on the upper side; leaflets20-40, opposite, subsessile; lamina 1-2.5 x 0.5-1 cm, oblong, base oblique, obtuse, apex obtuse, emarginate, margin entire, glabrous, coriaceous; lateral nerves 5-15 pairs, pinnate, faint, intercostae obscure. Flowers bisexual, yellow, in supra-axillary and terminal racemes; pedicels 1-2 cm long; sepals 5, unequal; petals 5, orbicular, subequal, with red spot at the base; stamens 10, declinate, densely woolly at base; ovary half inferior, grey-velvety. Fruit a pod, 7-10 x 3-4 cm, obliquely oblong, black, glabrous; seeds black, oblong or ellipsoid.
  Habit: Tree
  Flowering & Fruiting: August-December
  District(s): All Districts
  Medicinal: Yes
  Habitat: Cultivated
  Distribution: Indo-Malesia
  Aquatic: No
  Epiphyte(s): No
  Saprophyte: No
  Stem parasite: No
  Root parasite: No
  Flower colour(s): Yellow
  Weed: No
  Monocot/Dicot: Dicotyledonous Plants
  Exotic: Yes
  Garden: No
  Edible: No
  Vegetable: No
  Endemic to:
  IUCN status:
  Localities: Thenmalai, Ariankavu
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