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  Bruguiera gymnorrhiza
  Citation:  Bruguiera gymnorrhiza (L.) Savi. in Lam., Encycl. 4: 696. 1797, "gymnorhiza"; Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India 2: 437. 1878; Mohanan, Fl. Quilon Dist. 171. 1984; Antony, Syst. Stud. Fl. Kottayam Dist. 156. 1989; M. Mohanan & Henry, Fl. Thiruvanthapuram 180. 1994; Anupama & Sivad., Rheedea 14: 22. 2004; Sunil & Sivadasan, Fl. Alappuzha Dist. 276. 2009. Rhizophora gymnorrhiza L., Sp. Pl. 447. 1753. Bruguiera rheedei Blume, Enum. Pl. Jav. 1: 92. 1827. Bruguiera conjugata Merr., Philipp. J. Sci. 9: 118. 1914, non Rhizophora conjugata L. 1753; Gamble, Fl. Pres. Madras 456(324). 1919.
  Malayalam Name(s): Kandel, Karakandel, Orange kandel, Penakandel
  Tamil name(s):
  English name(s):
  Description: Evergreen trees, to 6 m high; bole occasionally buttressed, underground roots producing numerous knee roots; bark greyish to black, roughly fissured, lenticellate; branchlets terete, glabrous, reddish-green, with conspicuous, narrow brown stipular scar encircling the node. Leaves simple, opposite, decussate, stipulate; stipules interpetiolar, 3.5-5 cm long, reddish; petiole 20-45 mm long, terete, stout, grooved above, reddish, glabrous; lamina 6-17 x 3-7.5 cm, elliptic, elliptic-oblong or ovate-lanceolate, base cuneate, apex acute, coriaceous, glabrous, reddish-green above, pale green beneath; lateral nerves 9-12 pairs, parallel, slender, looped near the margin, secondary laterals present, obscure, intercostae reticulate, obscure. Flowers bisexual, reddish-pink, 2.5-3.5 x 2.4 cm, solitary, axillary, drooping; pedicels 1.5-2.5 cm long, curved, bright red; calyx tube campanulate, red or dark pink, glabrous, enclosing the ovary; lobes 12-16, to 2 cm long, narrow, thick, fleshy, glabrous, persistent; petals 12-16, 1.1-1.3 cm long, free, shortly stalked, brown, deeply bilobed with a bristle in the sinus of the lobes; bristle not exceeding the petal lobes; lobes equal, more or less round with 2-4 cilia on each, basal margin of the petals with dense stiff hairs, stamens slightly unequal in length; filaments 5-6 mm long, anthers 4-5 mm long, basifixed, mucronate, lobes slightly unequal; ovary half inferior, inserted within and fused with the calyx cup, 2-4-celled, ovules 2, in each cell, pendulous, style 1.5 cm long, filiform, terete; stigma 3-4 fid. Fruit a drupe 2-2.5 cm long, reddish-green, conoid with persistent erect calyx lobes; seed one; hypocotyl 10-25 cm x 1.2 cm, cylindric, with a blunt tip, surface slightly ridged, green with brownish tinge.
  Habit: Tree
  Flowering & Fruiting: June-October
  District(s): Kottayam, Alappuzha, Kollam, Thiruvananthapuram, Ernakulam, Thrissur
  Habitat: Mangrove swamps
  Distribution: Indo-Malesia, Africa and Madagascar
  Aquatic: Yes
  Epiphyte(s): No
  Saprophyte: No
  Stem parasite: No
  Root parasite: No
  Flower colour(s): Red, Pink
  Weed: No
  Monocot/Dicot: Dicotyledonous Plants
  Exotic: No
  Garden: No
  Edible: No
  Vegetable: No
  Endemic to:
  IUCN status:
  Localities: Veli, Aroor
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