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  Briedelia retusa
  Citation:  Briedelia retusa (L.) A. Juss., Euphorb. Gen. 109. 1824; Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India 5: 268. 1887p.p.; Gamble, Fl. Pres. Madras 1280(896). 1925; Manilal & Sivar., Fl. Calicut 273. 1982; Mohanan, Fl. Quilon Dist. 360. 1984; Ansari, Fl. Kasaragod Div. 335. 1985; Vajr., Fl. Palghat Dist. 423. 1990; M. Mohanan & Henry, Fl. Thiruvanthapuram 409. 1994; Subram., Fl. Thenmala Div. 327. 1995; Chakrabarty et al., Journ. Econ. Tax. Bot. 26: 321. 2002; Sasidh., Fl. Parambikulam WLS 284. 2002; Mohanan & Sivad., Fl. Agasthyamala 602. 2002; Anil Kumar et al., Fl. Pathanamthitta 439. 2005; N.P.Balakr. & Chakrab., Fam. Euphorbiaceae India 319. 2007; Sunil & Sivadasan, Fl. Alappuzha Dist. 623. 2009; Ratheesh Narayanan, Fl. Stud. Wayanad Dist. 726. 2009. Clutia retusa L., Sp. Pl. 1475. 1753. Briedelia spinosa (Roxb.) Willd., Sp. Pl. 4:979.1806. Briedelia crenulata Roxb., Fl. Ind. 3: 734. 1832; Antony, Syst. Stud. Fl. Kottayam Dist. 357. 1989; Sasidh., Fl. Chinnar WLS 280. 1999. Briedelia roxburghiana (Muell.-Arg.) Gehrm., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 41. 95: 30. 1908; Gamble, Fl. Pres. Madras 1280(896). 1925; Manilal & Sivar., Fl. Calicut 273. 1982. Briedelia airy-shawii P. T. Li, Acta Phyt. Sin. 20: 117. 1982, nom. illeg.; Sasidh. et al., Bot. Stud. Med. Pl. Kerala 10,16. 1996; Sasidh. & Sivar., Fl. Pl. Thrissur For. 397. 1996; Sasidh., Fl. Shenduruny WLS 283. 1997; Sivar. & Mathew, Fl. Nilambur 610. 1997; Sasidh., Fl. Periyar Tiger Reserve 366. 1998.
  Malayalam Name(s): Asuvamaram, Kaini, Kasi, Kadukumaram, Komanji, Mukkayini, Mullumaruthu, Mulluvenga, Mullankkayini
  Tamil name(s):
  English name(s):
  Description: Deciduous trees, to 20 m high, bark greyish-brown; young trees armed with sharp thorns; branchlets thinly hairy. Leaves simple, alternate, 5-22 x 3-11 cm, broadly elliptic, oblong, elliptic-oblong, obovate or obovate-oblong, apex obtuse retuse or subacute, base round, obtuse, truncate, cordate or acute, margin entire or slightly crenulate, bright green and glabrous above(turning pinkish-brown before falling), glaucous and usually finely tomentose beneath, coriaceous; stipules 7 mm long, lateral, lanceolate, deciduous; petiole 9-15 mm long, stout, pubescent when young; lateral nerves 14-25 pairs, parallel, prominent, dichotomously forked near the margin, intercostae scalariform, prominent. Flowers unisexual; greenish-yellow, sessile or shortly pedicellate, crowded in dense axillary or terminal, some times paniculate spikes often exceeding the leaves; bracts scaly. Male flowers: 7 mm across, tepals 10, biseriate, valvate; outer tepals 3 mm long, ovate-lanceolate, thick, truncate, shortly connate, acute, inner ones 2 mm, obovate, cuneate, obtuse, fimbriate; stamens 5, monadelphous, born on a gonophore, exserted; filaments 0.7 mm, anthers oblong; pistillode bifurcate; disc annular. Female flowers: 6.5 mm across, tepals 10, biseriate, lanceolate, valvate; outer and inner 2.5 and 1.5 mm long, coriaceous, puberulous without, truncate, shortly connate, fimbriate, acute; ovary half inferior, globose, 2 x 1 mm, 2-locular, ovules 2 in each cell; styles 2, forked, 2 mm; stigmatiferous; disc with an inner, membranous, fimbriate corona enclosing basal part of ovary. Fruit a drupe, 7-8 mm across, purplish-black, seated on the persistent, slightly enlarged calyx, pyrenes 2, epicarp crustaceous; seed one in each pyrene.
  Habit: Tree
  Flowering & Fruiting: August-December
  District(s): All Districts
  Habitat: Semi-evergreen and deciduous forests, also in the plains
  Distribution: Indo-Malaya
  Aquatic: No
  Epiphyte(s): No
  Saprophyte: No
  Stem parasite: No
  Root parasite: No
  Flower colour(s): Yellow, Creamy
  Weed: No
  Monocot/Dicot: Dicotyledonous Plants
  Exotic: No
  Garden: No
  Edible: No
  Vegetable: No
  Endemic to:
  IUCN status:
  Altitude: 300-2000
  Localities: Peechi, Vellanimala, Kattalappara, Koruthode, Sabarimala, Vengoli, Upper Moozhiar, Pathenthode, Hosdurg, Kumbla, Taliparamba, Attappady R.F., Chindaki forest, Pothundy, Walayar, Nellikuth, Kanjirakadavu, Ariankavu, Vandalodu, Palmel, Bonaccord, Kappukadu
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