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  Brachiaria brizantha
  Citation:  Brachiaria brizantha (Hochst. ex A. Rich.) Stapf in Prain, Fl. Trop. Africa 9: 531. 1919; Manilal & Sivar., Fl. Calicut 343. 1982; Babu, Fl. Malappuram Dist. 919. 1990; Sajeev et al., Journ. Econ. Tax. Bot. 22: 491. 1998; Sasidh., Fl. Periyar Tiger Reserve 513. 1998; Ratheesh Narayanan, Fl. Stud. Wayanad Dist. 954. 2009. Panicum brizanthum Hochst. ex A. Rich., Tent. Fl. Abyss. 2: 363. 1851.
  Malayalam Name(s):
  Tamil name(s):
  English name(s):
  Description: Perennial herbs, to 1-2 m tall; sometimes with short rhizome; culms geniculate and rooting at the lower nodes, branching from the lower and middle nodes, the internodes flattened, solid or the lower becoming hollow, glabrous, often pilose just below the nodes. Sheaths compressed, shorter than the internodes on flowering culms, papillose-hirsute, ciliate, the collar glabrous or sparsely pubescent; ligule 0.8-2.0 mm long, the membrane 0.3-0.7 mm long, the cilia 0.5 -1.3 mm long; blades 5-19 x 1.0-1.8 cm, linear to linear-lanceolate, papillose-hirsute, acuminate, the base asymmetrical, rounded, strongly serrate with uneven teeth, cartilaginous. Panicle 6-14 cm long; common rhachis 2-9 cm long, hirsute, ending in a rudimentary branch; racemes 2-4, 3-8 cm long, somewhat curved, the rhachis winged, c. 1.5 mm wide, often curved, prominently nerved, glabrous on the back or pubescent at the pedicels, inconspicuous to 0.5 mm long. Spikelets 4.6-5.2 mm long, imbricate, strongly secund, solitary, 2-rowed, sparsely pilose, green or purplish, acute and short-apiculate; lower glume 1.8-2.4 mm long, the lower portion adnate to the pedicel for up to 0.2 mm, ovate, broadly acute, glabrous, 9-11 nerved; rhachilla between the glumes elongated; upper glume as long as the floret, broadly elliptic-ovate, 7-9 nerved, sparsely pilose towards the tip; lower floret staminate, the lemma as long as the upper floret, broadly elliptic-ovate, 5-nerved, the nerves connected with cross-veinlets at the tip, very sparsely pilose at the tip, the palea as ong as the upper floret; upper floret 4.1-4.3 mm long, 1.9-2.0 mm wide, elliptic, acute, minutely pitted; anthers 2.5-3.0 mm long; stigma purple.
  Habit: Herb
  Flowering & Fruiting: October-January
  District(s): Idukki, Malappuram, Kozhikkode, Wayanad
  Habitat: Evergreen forests
  Distribution: Indo-Malesia
  Aquatic: No
  Epiphyte(s): No
  Saprophyte: No
  Stem parasite: No
  Root parasite: No
  Flower colour(s):
  Weed: No
  Monocot/Dicot: Monocotyledonous Plants
  Exotic: No
  Garden: No
  Edible: No
  Vegetable: No
  Endemic to:
  IUCN status:
  Localities: Mlappara
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