Home Kerala Plants - DVD Search Kerala Plants Exotic Plants Garden Plants Trees Shrubs Climbers Medicinal Plants
Search Kerala Plants
Exotic Plants
Garden Plants
Medicinal Plants
Geology & Soil
Garden Plants Kerala
50 Top Garden Plants
25 Herb Garden Plants
25 Shrub Garden Plants
15 Climber Garden Plants
10 Top Tree Grden Plants
  Bischofia javanica
  Citation:  Bischofia javanica Blume, Bijdr. 1169. 1826; Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India 5: 345. 1887; Gamble, Fl. Pres. Madras 1312c. 1925; Mohanan, Fl. Quilon Dist. 359. 1984; Manilal, Fl. Silent Valley 246. 1988; Ramach. & V.J. Nair, Fl. Cannanore Dist. 410. 1988; Vajr., Fl. Palghat Dist. 422. 1990; Subram., Fl. Thenmala Div. 348. 1995; Sasidh. et al., Bot. Stud. Med. Pl. Kerala 22. 1996; Sasidh. & Sivar., Fl. Pl. Thrissur For. 395. 1996; Sasidh., Fl. Shenduruny WLS 281. 1997; Swarup. et al., Shola For. Kerala 48. 1998; Sivar. & Mathew, Fl. Nilambur 607. 1997; Sasidh., Fl. Periyar Tiger Reserve 365. 1998; Sasidh., Fl. Chinnar WLS 279. 1999; Sasidh., Fl. Parambikulam WLS 283. 2002; Mohanan & Sivad., Fl. Agasthyamala 599. 2002; Anil Kumar et al., Fl. Pathanamthitta 438. 2005; N.P.Balakr. & Chakrab., Fam. Euphorbiaceae India 315. 2007; Ratheesh Narayanan, Fl. Stud. Wayanad Dist. 723. 2009.
  Malayalam Name(s): Cholavenga, Chorakkali, Mlachethayan, Nannalmaram, Neeli, Nira, Rakthavenga, Thiruppu
  Tamil name(s):
  English name(s): Bishopweed, Bischofia, Javawood, Toog
  Description: Deciduous trees, to 30 m high; bark brown, thin, scaly; exudation red, watery; branches spreading. Leaves 3-foliate, alternate, 5.5-18 x 3-9 cm, elliptic, elliptic-ovate, ovate, obovate or orbicular, base acute or round, apex acuminate, margin serrate, glabrous, membranous; stipules lateral, cauducous; rachis 7-20 cm long, stout, grooved above, glabrous; petiolule of lateral leaflets 3-20 mm long, of terminal leaflet 15-40 mm long, slender, glabrous; lateral nerves 6-9 pairs, slender, prominent, intercostae reticulate, faint. Flowers unisexual, green, in axillary and lateral pedunculed paniculate racemes. Male flowers: 2-3 mm across; pedicels very short, slender; tepals 5, obovate, concave, imbricate, concealing the anthers; stamens 5, filaments short; anthers globular; pistillode short, broad. Female flowers: 2-35 mm across; pedicels longer than in the male, stout, elongating in fruit; tepals 5, linear lanceolate; ovary superior, globose, 3-celled, exserted, ovules 2, in each cell; style 3, linear; stigmatic through out on the inner face. Fruit a berry, globose 7 mm across, reddish-brown; seeds 3, trigonus.
  Habit: Tree
  Flowering & Fruiting: March-October
  District(s): Palakkad, Idukki, Kollam, Pathanamthitta, Malappuram, Kannur, Thiruvananthapuram, Thrissur, Wayanad, Kozhikkode
  Habitat: Evergreen and semi-evergreen forests
  Distribution: Indo-Malesia to Pacific Islands
  Aquatic: No
  Epiphyte(s): No
  Saprophyte: No
  Stem parasite: No
  Root parasite: No
  Flower colour(s): Green, Creamy
  Weed: No
  Monocot/Dicot: Dicotyledonous Plants
  Exotic: No
  Garden: No
  Edible: No
  Vegetable: No
  Endemic to:
  IUCN status:
  Altitude: 700-1200
  Localities: Peechi, Vazhachal, Rosemala, Kattalappara, Kuttar, Thekkady, Pampa, Karimala, Kariamchola, Nadugani ghats, Damsite, Campshed area, Kakki hills, Chandanathode, Nedumpoyil, Mukkali forests, Attappady R.F., Pooyamkutty, Thalichola, Hereford, Thenmalai, Atta
Kerala News Online