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  Balanophora fungosa ssp. indica
 
  Family: BALANOPHORACEAE
  Citation:  Balanophora fungosa J. R. & G. Forst., Char. Gen. Pl. 100. t. 50. 1776, ssp. indica (Arn.) Hansen, Dansk. Bot. Ark 28: 100. ff. 20 & 21. 1972; Mohanan, Fl. Quilon Dist. 352. 1984; Manilal, Fl. Silent Valley 242. 1988; Ramach. & V.J. Nair, Fl. Cannanore Dist. 403. 1988; Vajr., Fl. Palghat Dist. 414. 1990; M. Mohanan & Henry, Fl. Thiruvanthapuram 402. 1994; Sasidh. et al., Bot. Stud. Med. Pl. Kerala 21,29,36. 1996; Sasidh., Fl. Shenduruny WLS 277. 1997; Swarup. et al., Shola For. Kerala 42. 1998; Sivar. & Mathew, Fl. Nilambur 599. 1997; Sasidh., Fl. Periyar Tiger Reserve 361. 1998; Sasidh., Fl. Chinnar WLS 276. 1999; Sasidh., Fl. Parambikulam WLS 277. 2002; Mohanan & Sivad., Fl. Agasthyamala 587. 2002; Anil Kumar et al., Fl. Pathanamthitta 431. 2005; Ratheesh Narayanan, Fl. Stud. Wayanad Dist. 714. 2009. Langsdorffia indica Arn., Ann. Nat. Hist. 2:37. 1838. Balanophora indica (Arn.) Wall. ex Griff., Trans. Linn. Soc. London 20: 95. 1846; Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India 5: 237. 1886; Gamble, Fl. Pres. Madras 1263(885). 1925.
  Malayalam Name(s): Athithippali, Kannukuttimadu, Nilamchakka
  Tamil name(s):
  English name(s):
  Description: Dioecious, parasitic herbs, 10-25 cm high. Rootstock warted with lenticels. Stem stout, short, cylindric, 1.5-2 cm diam. Scale leaves 2.5-3.5 x 1.5-2 cm, ovate to sub orbicular, obtuse at apex, purple. Male inflorescence obovoid, dense raceme, 5-10 cm long, 3-6 cm wide. Flowers small, 0.4-0.6 cm long. Perianth lobes 2-6, white. Stamens 2-6 or more; filaments united. Female inflorescence globose heads, 2-5 cm diam., bright red in colour. Perianth 0. Ovary ellipsoid, minute.
  Habit: Herb
  Flowering & Fruiting: January-March
  District(s): Palakkad, Kollam, Idukki, Pathanamthitta, Malappuram, Kannur, Thiruvananthapuram, Wayanad, Thrissur
  Medicinal: Yes
  Habitat: Evergreen forests
  Distribution: Indo-Malesia and Australia
  Aquatic: No
  Epiphyte(s): No
  Saprophyte: No
  Stem parasite: No
  Root parasite: Yes
  Flower colour(s): White
  Weed: No
  Monocot/Dicot: Dicotyledonous Plants
  Exotic: No
  Garden: No
  Edible: No
  Vegetable: No
  Endemic to:
  IUCN status:
  Altitude: 900-1200
  Localities: Kallar, Rosemala, Olikkudy, Mlappara, Kanthalppara, Campshed area, South Walakkad, Sabari hills, Chandanathode, Teerthundamala, Mukkali forests, Boneccord, Karuvarakundu, Athirumala, Chemungi
   
 
   
 
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