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  Arthraxon hispidus
  Citation:  Arthraxon hispidus (Thunb.) Makino, Bot. Mag. Tokyo 26:214.1912; Ansari, Fl. Kasaragod Div. 446. 1985; Manilal, Fl. Silent Valley 346. 1988; Antony, Syst. Stud. Fl. Kottayam Dist. 443. 1989; Ratheesh Narayanan, Fl. Stud. Wayanad Dist. 947. 2009. Phalaris hispida Thunb., Fl. Japan 44. 1784. Arthraxon ciliaris P. Beauv., Ess. Agrost. 111. t.11. f. 6. 1812; Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India 7: 146. 1896. Arthraxon quartinianus (A. Rich.) Nash, N. Amer. Fl. 17: 99. 1912; Gamble, Fl. Pres. Madras 1728(1198). 1934; Manilal & Sivar., Fl. Calicut 334. 1982; Sreek. & V.J. Nair, Fl. Kerala Grasses 41. 1991; M. Mohanan & Henry, Fl. Thiruvanthapuram 525. 1994; Sasidh., Fl. Periyar Tiger Reserve 510. 1998; Mohanan & Sivad., Fl. Agasthyamala 802. 2002; Anil Kumar et al., Fl. Pathanamthitta 562. 2005. Alectoridia quartiniana A. Rich., Tent. Fl. Abyss. 2: 448. t.99. 1851.
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  Tamil name(s):
  English name(s):
  Description: Tufted annual herbs. Culms 9.5-34 cm high, decumbent, smooth; nodes pubescent, basal ones rooting. Leaf blade shortly ovate-lanceolate, 1.2-3 x 0.4-0.6 cm, acute at apex, more or less rounded to semiamplexicaul at base, scabrid to hairy on both sides, margins thick, more or less wavy, finely serrulate; ligule ovate, ca. 0.8 mm, membranous with fimbriate apex; leaf sheath keeled towards apex, 1.2-3 cm, nerves prominent, tuberculate hairy dorsally. Inflorescence of 2-4 subdigitate racemes; peduncle 2.5-12 cm, sparsely hairy, greenish. Racemes short, 1-3 cm, greenish purple. Spikelets paired, falling entire along with rachis joint and reduced pedicel (pedicelled spikelets not developed anywhere on raceme); sessile spikelets laterally compressed, peidcelled spikelets reduced to short pedicel only; callus bearded; joints solid, 1.8-2.2 mm, slender, alternate, hairy, hairs ca. 1.8 mm; pedicel ca. 1 mm, tip hairy, white. Sessile spikelet ovate to oblong-lanceolate, 2.8-3.5 x ca. 0.7 mm, acuminate or obtuse with rounded base, awned, purplish green to brownish at maturity. Lower glumes ovate-lanceolate, 2.5-3.5 x ca. 0.8 mm, acuminate to obtuse, dorsally rounded, subcoriaceous, purplish green, 5-7 nerved with scabrid spicules above middle; margins inrolled. Upper glume ovate-lanceolate, 3-3.4 x ca. 0.6 mm, acute to acuminate, chartaceous to subcoriaceous, sparsely long hairy, greenish purple, 3-nerved, more or less 1-keeled towards apex, keel scabrid. Florets 2. Lower lemma ovate-lanceolate, ca. 2 x 0.7 mm, acute, membranous to chartaceous, hyaline to purple tinged at apex, more or less glabrous, nerveless. Lower palea absent. Upper lemma ovate-lanceolate, 1.6-3.2 x 0.4-0.6 mm, more or less folded, acute to acuminate, chartaceous, hyaline, faintly 0-2 nerved, at times 1-keeled, awned; awn basifixed, geniculate, column twisted, 3-3.6 mm, rugose, bristle 3.5-4 mm, barbellate. Upper palea absent. Lodicules 2, truncate, ca. 0.3 mm, membranous, hyaline. Stamens 2, brown; anthers 0.4-0.6 mm; filaments 0.3-0.4 mm. Ovary oblong-elliptic, ca. 0.3 x 0.2 mm, acute, greenish; style ca. 0.4 mm, green; stigma plumose, ca. 0.4 mm, brown. Caryopsis oblong-elliptic to oblanceolate, 1.6-2 x 0.4-0.6mm, acute, greenish brown, embryo at base.
  Habit: Herb
  Flowering & Fruiting: September-March
  District(s): Kottayam, Idukki, Pathanamthitta, Thiruvananthapuram, Wayanad, Kozhikkode, Kasaragode, Palakkad
  Habitat: Moist deciduous forests and Grasslands
  Distribution: India, Sri Lanka and Myanmar
  Aquatic: No
  Epiphyte(s): No
  Saprophyte: No
  Stem parasite: No
  Root parasite: No
  Flower colour(s):
  Weed: No
  Monocot/Dicot: Monocotyledonous Plants
  Exotic: No
  Garden: No
  Edible: No
  Vegetable: No
  Endemic to:
  IUCN status:
  Altitude: 500-750
  Localities: Thekkady, Ranni, Campshed area, Bekal, Bela, Hosdurg, Taliparamba, Munnar, Peermade, Meppadi, Bonaccord
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