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  Aporosa cardiosperma
  Citation:  Aporosa cardiosperma (Gaertn.) Merr., J. Arnold Arbor. 35: 139. 1954; N.P.Balakr. & Chakrab., Fam. Euphorbiaceae India 310. 2007; Ratheesh Narayanan, Fl. Stud. Wayanad Dist. 722. 2009. Croton cardiospermus Gaertn., Fruct. Sem. Pl. 2: 120. 1790. Scepa lindleyana Wight, Ic. t. 361. 1840. Aporosa lindleyana (Wight) Baill., Etud. Gen. Euphorb. 645. 1858; Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India 5: 349. 1887; Gamble, Fl. Pres. Madras 1309(916). 1925; Manilal & Sivar., Fl. Calicut 260. 1982; Mohanan, Fl. Quilon Dist. 358. 1984; Ansari, Fl. Kasaragod Div. 333. 1985; Ramach. & V.J. Nair, Fl. Cannanore Dist. 409. 1988; Antony, Syst. Stud. Fl. Kottayam Dist. 355. 1989; Vajr., Fl. Palghat Dist. 421. 1990; Chakrab. & Gangop., Journ. Econ. Tax. Bot. 17: 164. 1993; M. Mohanan & Henry, Fl. Thiruvanthapuram 407. 1994; Subram., Fl. Thenmala Div. 337. 1995; Sasidh. et al., Bot. Stud. Med. Pl. Kerala 10,16. 1996; Sasidh. & Sivar., Fl. Pl. Thrissur For. 393. 1996; Sasidh., Fl. Shenduruny WLS 281. 1997; Sivar. & Mathew, Fl. Nilambur 605. 1997; Sasidh., Fl. Periyar Tiger Reserve 365. 1998; Sasidh., Fl. Parambikulam WLS 282. 2002; Mohanan & Sivad., Fl. Agasthyamala 598. 2002; Anil Kumar et al., Fl. Pathanamthitta 437. 2005; Sunil & Sivadasan, Fl. Alappuzha Dist. 620. 2009.
  Malayalam Name(s): Aechil, Eachil, Kotili, Ponvetti, Vetti
  Tamil name(s):
  English name(s):
  Description: Evergreen trees, to 15 m high; bark 6-8 mm thick, greyish-brown, vertical striations shallow, brittle; branchlets terete, glabrous. Leaves simple, attenuate, bifarious, 7.5-18 x 3-8 cm, elliptic-oblong, elliptic, oblong or ovate-oblong, base acute, obtuse or round, apex acuminate or obtusely acuminate, margin entire, glabrous, coriaceous; stipules lateral, lanceolate, cauducous; petiole 10-20 mm long, stout, grooved above, glabrous; lateral nerves 7-10 pairs, pinnate, prominent, intercostae reticulate, faint. Male flowers: yellow, solitary or clustered in axillary spikes of 1-3.5 cm long; bracts ovate, ciliate, flowers 1-3 in each bract; tepals 4, ovate, ciliate; stamens 2-3, from the centre of the flower; filaments free; anthers didymous. Female flowers: pale green, 3-8 together, in densely tomentose small racemes; pedicellate; bracts concave, ciliate, imbricate; tepals 4, larger than males; ovary superior, flask-shaped, thinly hispid; 2-celled, ovules 2 in each cell; styles 2-3, connate into a column; stigmas 2, small, plumose, spreading, recurved. Fruit a capsule 10-12 mm across, globose, yellow, glabrous, pointed with the style; aril orange-yellow; seed one, brown, planoconvex.
  Habit: Tree
  Flowering & Fruiting: December-June
  District(s): All Districts
  Medicinal: Yes
  Habitat: Semi-evergreen and evergreen forests, also in the plains
  Distribution: Peninsular India and Sri Lanka
  Aquatic: No
  Epiphyte(s): No
  Saprophyte: No
  Stem parasite: No
  Root parasite: No
  Flower colour(s): White, Green, Yellow
  Weed: No
  Monocot/Dicot: Dicotyledonous Plants
  Exotic: No
  Garden: No
  Edible: Yes
  Vegetable: No
  Endemic to:
  IUCN status:
  Altitude: 600-1100
  Localities: Peechi, Vellanimala, Chimmini, Kulathupuzha, Umiyar, Arjunankotta, Parambikulam, Sangili, Kulathupuzha, Maniyaar, Thekkuthode, Cheruvathur, Panathur, Parappa, Kannoth, Manantody, Sreekantapuram, Mukkali forests, Peradala, Vandanam, Cherthala, Vaniampuzha
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