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  Antidesma montanum
  Citation:  Antidesma montanum Blume, Bijdr. 1124. 1826; Chakrab. & Gangop., Journ. Econ. Tax. Bot. 24: 26. 2000; Sasidh., Fl. Parambikulam WLS 281. 2002; N.P.Balakr. & Chakrab., Fam. Euphorbiaceae India 305. 2007; Ratheesh Narayanan, Fl. Stud. Wayanad Dist. 720. 2009. Antidesma pubescens Roxb. var. menasu Tul., Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot. ser. 3, 15: 215. 1851. Antidesma acuminatum Wight, Ic. t. 1991. 1853; Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India 5: 363. 1887. Antidesma moritzii (Tul.) Muell.-Arg., Linnaea 34: 67. 1865 & in DC., Prodr. 15: 252. 1866; Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India 5: 362. 1887. Antidesma refractum Muell.-Arg. in DC., Prodr. 15: 257. 1866. Antidesma smile Muell.-Arg. in DC., Prodr. 15: 259. 1866. Antidesma menasu (Tul.) Miq. ex Muell.-Arg. in DC., Prodr. 15:257. 1866p.p., Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India 5: 364. 1887p.p,; Gamble, Fl. Pres. Madras 1297(908). 1925; Manilal & Sivar., Fl. Calicut 272. 1982; Mohanan, Fl. Quilon Dist. 357. 1984; Ansari, Fl. Kasaragod Div. 332. 1985; Manilal, Fl. Silent Valley 245. 1988; Ramach. & V.J. Nair, Fl. Cannanore Dist. 408. 1988; Antony, Syst. Stud. Fl. Kottayam Dist. 355. 1989; Babu, Fl. Malappuram Dist. 704. 1990; Vajr., Fl. Palghat Dist. 420. 1990; M. Mohanan & Henry, Fl. Thiruvanthapuram 428. 1994; Subram., Fl. Thenmala Div. 347. 1995; Sasidh. et al., Bot. Stud. Med. Pl. Kerala 22. 1996; Sasidh., Fl. Shenduruny WLS 280. 1997; Swarup. et al., Shola For. Kerala 48. 1998; Sivar. & Mathew, Fl. Nilambur 605. 1997; Sasidh., Fl. Periyar Tiger Reserve 364. 1998; Sasidh., Fl. Chinnar WLS 279. 1999; Mohanan & Sivad., Fl. Agasthyamala 596. 2002; Anil Kumar et al., Fl. Pathanamthitta 436. 2005; Sunil & Sivadasan, Fl. Alappuzha Dist. 620. 2009. Antidesma menasu (Tul.) Miq. ex Muell.-Arg. var. linearifolia Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 5: 364. 1887. Antidesma montanum Blume var. microcarpum Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 36: 263. 1981.
  Malayalam Name(s): Putharaval, Thathalamaram
  Tamil name(s):
  English name(s):
  Description: Trees, to 15 m high, bark brown, vertically shallowly grooved; branchlets yellow, brown, greyish-white tomentose to sparsely pubescent, becoming glabrous in age. Leaves simple, alternate, 6-30 x 2-10 cm, oblong, elliptic-oblong, ovate-oblong or elliptic-lanceolate, apex acuminate or caudate-acuminate, base acute, obtuse to round or often oblique, margin entire, often glossy above and or beneath, glabrous or puberulous or pilose on midrib above, glabrous or tomentose to sparsely puberulous on midrib beneath, chartaceous to thinly coriaceous; stipules lateral, 3-12 x 0.5-3 mm, linear, lanceolate or subulate, puberulous or glabrous, deciduous; petiole 3-10 mm, slender, tomentose to glabrous; lateral nerves 4-12 pairs, pinnate, slender, prominent, intercostae reticulate, faint. Male flowers: in axillary and terminal simple or paniculate racemes; peduncle brown-puberulous; bracts linear, lanceolate, triangular or oblong; pedicels 0.5-2 mm long, slender, glabrous; perianth cupular 0. 6 × 1-1.5 mm, glabrescent; lobes 3-4, triangular, deltoid or ovate, deep; disc 3-4 lobed; stamens 3-4; filaments inserted on the excavations of the disc; pistillode knob like or capitate. Female flowers: in terminal and axillary, simple or one to few branched racemes; peduncle whitish, yellow or tawny tomentose to glabrous; bracts linear, lanceolate or deltoid; pedicel 0.5-3 mm long, tomentollous to glabrous; perianth cupular, ca.1 x 1-2 mm, sparsely puberulous to glabrous; lobes 4-5, deep, triangular, deltoid or suborbicular; ovary superior, 1-1.8 mm long, ovoid or subglobose, glabrous, 1-[2] locular, ovules 2 in each cell; styles terminal. Fruit a drupe 3-6 x 2.5-4 mm, ellipsoid to ovoid or sometimes rhomboid-ellipsoid or rarely ovoid-pyriform, not compressed, glabrous, alveolate or ribbed.
  Habit: Tree
  Flowering & Fruiting: January-December
  District(s): All Districts
  Habitat: Evergreen and shola forests, also in sacred groves
  Distribution: Indo-Malesia and East Himalayas
  Aquatic: No
  Epiphyte(s): No
  Saprophyte: No
  Stem parasite: No
  Root parasite: No
  Flower colour(s): Yellow, Green
  Weed: No
  Monocot/Dicot: Dicotyledonous Plants
  Exotic: No
  Garden: No
  Edible: No
  Vegetable: No
  Endemic to:
  IUCN status:
  Altitude: 450-2300
  Localities: Peechi, Vazhani, Kattalappara, Kallar, Olikkudy, Uppermanalar, Koruthode, Karimala, Chandanathode, Walayar, Silent Valley R. F., Arippa, Kadalar, Valiyaparathode, Almost all forests, Parappa, Taliparamba, Kannoth, Sengallar, Kaikatty, Kudam-Siruvani fore
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