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  Antiaris toxicaria
  Family: MORACEAE
  Citation:  Antiaris toxicaria Lesch., Ann. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. Paris 16: 478, t.22. 1820; Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India 5: 537. 1888; Gamble, Fl. Pres. Madras 1367(957). 1928; Mohanan, Fl. Quilon Dist. 376. 1984; M. Mohanan & Henry, Fl. Thiruvanthapuram 430. 1994; Sasidh. & Sivar., Fl. Pl. Thrissur For. 425. 1996; Sasidh., Fl. Shenduruny WLS 300. 1997; Sivar. & Mathew, Fl. Nilambur 658. 1997; Sasidh., Fl. Periyar Tiger Reserve 389. 1998; Sasidh., Fl. Chinnar WLS 295. 1999; Sasidh., Fl. Parambikulam WLS 307. 2002; Mohanan & Sivad., Fl. Agasthyamala 624. 2002; Ratheesh Narayanan, Fl. Stud. Wayanad Dist. 766. 2009.
  Malayalam Name(s): Aranjili, Aranthal, Chilapettamaram, Karanjili, Maravuri, Nettavil
  Tamil name(s):
  English name(s): Upas tree
  Description: Lofty deciduous trees, to 50 m high; bole buttressed; bark 10-15 mm thick greyish-white, smooth, pustular-lenticellate, lenticels in vertical rows; exudation watery or milky. Leaves simple, alternate, bifarious, 6.5-15 x 2.5-5 cm, oblong, elliptic-oblong or ovate-oblong, apex acuminate or obtusely acuminate, base round, obtuse or cordate, margin entire or distantly crenulate, coriaceous, glabrous, scabrous beneath; lateral nerves 6-11 pairs, parallel, looped near the margin, prominent, intercostae reticulate, faint; stipule small, lateral, connate, cauducous; petiole 3-8 mm long, stout, velvety. Flowers unisexual, greenish-yellow, minute, in spikes; male receptacle to 1.5 cm across, axillary, 3-4 together, tomentose; peduncle velvety; receptacle surrounded by imbricating bracts; tepals 3 or 4, spathulate, imbricate; stamens 3-8; filaments erect; anthers yellow; female flowers solitary in an involucre of few connate bracts, tepals absent; ovary superior, adnate to the involucre, 1-celled, ovule 1, pendulous; style arms 2, subulate, recurved. Fruit a drupe, 1.5-2.5 x 1-2 cm, pyriform or obovoid, fleshy, scarlet, velvety; seed 10-16 mm long.
  Habit: Tree
  Flowering & Fruiting: January-April
  District(s): Palakkad, Idukki, Kollam, Malappuram, Thiruvananthapuram, Thrissur, Wayanad, Kannur
  Medicinal: Yes
  Habitat: Evergreen and semi-evergreen forests, also in the sacred groves
  Distribution: Paleotropics
  Aquatic: No
  Epiphyte(s): No
  Saprophyte: No
  Stem parasite: No
  Root parasite: No
  Flower colour(s): Green, Yellow
  Weed: No
  Monocot/Dicot: Dicotyledonous Plants
  Exotic: No
  Garden: No
  Edible: No
  Vegetable: No
  Endemic to:
  IUCN status:
  Altitude: 500-700
  Localities: Peechi, Vazhani, Rosemala, Alampetty, Koruthode, Orukomban, Pooyamkutty, Thalichola, Bonaccord
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