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  Alpinia galanga
  Citation:  Alpinia galanga (L.) Sw., Obs. Bot. 2. 1791; Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India 6: 253. 1892; Gamble, Fl. Pres. Madras 1492(1042). 1928; Mohanan, Fl. Quilon Dist. 404. 1984; Antony, Syst. Stud. Fl. Kottayam Dist. 389. 1989; Sabu, Taxonomic Phylogenetic Stud. Zingiberac. 112. 1991; M. Mohanan & Henry, Fl. Thiruvanthapuram 475. 1994; Subram., Fl. Thenmala Div. 380. 1995; Mangaly & Sabu, Rheedea 2: 43. 1992; Sasidh., Fl. Periyar Tiger Reserve 445. 1998; Sabu, Zingiberaceae and Costaceae of South India 57. 2006; Sunil & Sivadasan, Fl. Alappuzha Dist. 682. 2009. Maranta galanga L., Sp. Pl. 3. 1762. Alpinia rheedei Wight, Ic. t. 2026. 1853.
  Malayalam Name(s): Aratha, Kolaratha, Kolinji, Pararatha
  Tamil name(s):
  English name(s): Java galangal, Siamese ginger, Greater galang
  Description: Aromatic perennial herb; root stock cylindric. Leafy stem to 2 m high, many. Leaves 40-65 x 8-13 cm, oblong-lanceolate, apex acute, base cuneate; petiole c. 5 mm long; ligule 6-7 mm long. Inflorescence terminal on the leaf shoot, dense-flowered; peduncle densely pubescent. Flowers c. 4 cm long, shortly pedicellate; bracts 2-2.5 x 0.5-0.8 cm, membranous; bracteoles c. 1.5 cm long. Calyx c. 1 cm long, cylindrical, split on one side, greenish-white. Corolla tube c. 1.2 cm long, greenish-white; lobes unequal, spreading, pubescent. Labellum c. 2 cm long, white, with a few oblique, lilac lines on either side of the midrib on the upper surface, base clawed, margins wavy, apex emarginate. Lateral staminodes 4-5 mm long, subulate. Anther 6-8 mm long; filament 1.2-1.5 cm long. Epigynous glands 2. Ovary 3 mm long, ellipsoid. Fruit 1 cm across, globose, orange-red.
  Habit: Herb
  Flowering & Fruiting: April-December
  District(s): Kottayam, Malappuram, Pathanamthitta, Alappuzha, Kollam, Idukki, Thiruvananthapuram, Thrissur, Wayanad, Ernakulam, Kannur
  Medicinal: Yes
  Habitat: Widely cultivated
  Distribution: Cultivated throughout SE Asia
  Aquatic: No
  Epiphyte(s): No
  Saprophyte: No
  Stem parasite: No
  Root parasite: No
  Flower colour(s): White
  Weed: No
  Monocot/Dicot: Monocotyledonous Plants
  Exotic: No
  Garden: No
  Edible: No
  Vegetable: No
  Endemic to:
  IUCN status:
  Localities: KFRI garden, Thannikkudy, Vandalodu, Thiruvambadi
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