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  Alpinia calcarata
  Citation:  Alpinia calcarata Rosc., Trans. Linn. Soc. London 8: 347. 1807; Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India 6: 254. 1892; Gamble, Fl. Pres. Madras 1493(1043). 1928; Mohanan, Fl. Quilon Dist. 404. 1984; Antony, Syst. Stud. Fl. Kottayam Dist. 389. 1989; Babu, Fl. Malappuram Dist. 788. 1990; Sabu, Taxonomic Phylogenetic Stud. Zingiberac. 108. 1991; Mangaly & Sabu, Rheedea 2: 41. 1992; Sivar. & Mathew, Fl. Nilambur 703. 1997; Anil Kumar et al., Fl. Pathanamthitta 497. 2005; Sabu, Zingiberaceae and Costaceae of South India 50. 2006; Sunil & Sivadasan, Fl. Alappuzha Dist. 681. 2009; Ratheesh Narayanan, Fl. Stud. Wayanad Dist. 858. 2009. Alpinia cernua Sims, Bot. Mag. 44: t. 1900. 1817. Alpinia spicata Roxb., Asiat. Res. 11: 356. 1810. Languas calcarata (Rosc.) Alston in Trimen, Handb. Fl. Ceylon 6: 282. 1931. Alpinia erecta Steud., Nomencl. Bot. (ed. 2) 62. 1840.
  Malayalam Name(s): Aratha, Chittaratha, Kolinchi
  Tamil name(s):
  English name(s): Lesser galangal, Snap Ginger
  Description: Leafy stem 1-1.5 m. Leaves sessile, lamina glabrous, 40-50 x 2-2.5 cm, linear-lanceolate, narrowed towards the base, tip acuminate, margin with short bristles placed 1-2 mm apart; ligule membranous, c. 1 cm long, tip shortly bifid, margin ciliate. Inflorescence terminal, 10-15 cm long, densely paniculate, lower cincinni 4-flowered, upper 2-flowered; peduncle densely pubescent. Bracts minute, c. 1 mm long, triangular, pubescent, deciduous. Bracteoles membranous, splitting to the base, 1-1.5 x 0.7-0.8 cm, ovate, minutely pubescent outside, glabrous within, deciduous. Flowers shortly pedicellate; pedicel densely pubescent. Calyx tubular, 0.8-1 cm long, sparsely pubescent. Corolla tube almost equal to the calyx, pubescent, lobes oblong, pubescent outside; dorsal lobe 1.5-1.8 x 0.6-0.8 cm; lateral lobes c. 1.5 x 0.5 cm. Labellum obovate, 3 cm long, 1.5-1.8 cm wide in the lower half, tip emarginate, variegated with dark purple and yellow, glabrous. Lateral staminodes small, subulate, at the base of the labellum. Stamen 2 cm long, shorter than the labellum, anther 8 mm long, thecae parallel, pubescent, ecrestate; style slightly projected above the anther; stigma rounded with ciliate opening. Epigynous glands two, 3 mm long, thick, free from each other. Ovary 4 x 3 mm, densely pubescent, trilocular with many ovules. Fruit globose, 2-2.5 x 1.5 cm, pubescent, orange-red. Seeds many.
  Habit: Herb
  Flowering & Fruiting: May-December
  District(s): All Districts
  Medicinal: Yes
  Habitat: Widely cultivated, sometimes runs wild
  Distribution: Indo-Malesia
  Aquatic: No
  Epiphyte(s): No
  Saprophyte: No
  Stem parasite: No
  Root parasite: No
  Flower colour(s): Brown, White
  Weed: No
  Monocot/Dicot: Monocotyledonous Plants
  Exotic: No
  Garden: No
  Edible: No
  Vegetable: No
  Endemic to:
  IUCN status:
  Localities: Adoor, Venmony, Karimpuzha
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