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  Actinodaphne malabarica
  Citation:  Actinodaphne malabarica Balakr., Journ. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 63: 329. 1967; Mohanan, Fl. Quilon Dist. 343. 1984; Ramach. & V.J. Nair, Fl. Cannanore Dist. 392. 1988; Antony, Syst. Stud. Fl. Kottayam Dist. 346. 1989; Vajr., Fl. Palghat Dist. 402. 1990; M. Mohanan & Henry, Fl. Thiruvanthapuram 389. 1994; Subram., Fl. Thenmala Div. 315. 1995; Sasidh. et al., Bot. Stud. Med. Pl. Kerala 23. 1996; Sasidh. & Sivar., Fl. Pl. Thrissur For. 379. 1996; Sasidh., Fl. Shenduruny WLS 264. 1997; Sasidh., Fl. Periyar Tiger Reserve 342. 1998; Sasidh., Fl. Parambikulam WLS 266. 2002; Anil Kumar et al., Fl. Pathanamthitta 422. 2005; Ratheesh Narayanan, Fl. Stud. Wayanad Dist. 694. 2009. Actinodaphne hirsuta Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India 5: 152. 1886, non Blume 1851; Gamble, Fl. Pres. Madras 1231(862). 1925.
  Malayalam Name(s): Kambilivirinji, Malavirinji, Neyaram, Pattutthalli, Pukachan
  Tamil name(s):
  English name(s):
  Description: Trees, to 18 m high, bark dark grey, smooth, lenticellate; young shoots densely fulvous tomentose. Leaves simple, subverticillate, opposite or subopposite, 7-25 x 2.5-6 cm, elliptic or elliptic-lanceolate, apex acuminate, base acute or attenuate, margin entire, glabrous above, villous beneath, chartaceous; lateral nerves 8-12 pairs, pinnate, slender, prominent, intercostae scalariform, obscure; petiole 7-20 mm long, stout, tomentose. Flowers unisexual, yellowish. Male flowers: in densely tomentose racemes of 2.5 cm long; bracts 10 x 7 mm, orbicular, densely silky brown tomentose; tepals 6, subequal, oblong, obtuse, silky brown tomentose; stamens 9, in 3 rows; filaments 2-galndular, densely hispid; anthers 4-celled, oblong, introrse. Female flowers: staminodes 9, in 3 rows, those of row 3 with 2-glands; ovary half inferior, ovoid, attenuate into the style; stigma dilated. Fruit a berry 7-10 mm across, globose, seated in a perianth cup, red.
  Habit: Tree
  Flowering & Fruiting: August-January
  District(s): Wayanad, Palakkad, Kottayam, Idukki, Kollam, Pathanamthitta, Kannur, Thiruvananthapuram, Thrissur
  Habitat: Evergreen and semi-evergreen forests
  Distribution: Southern Western Ghats
  Aquatic: No
  Epiphyte(s): No
  Saprophyte: No
  Stem parasite: No
  Root parasite: No
  Flower colour(s): Yellow
  Weed: No
  Monocot/Dicot: Dicotyledonous Plants
  Exotic: No
  Garden: No
  Edible: No
  Vegetable: No
  Endemic to: Southern Western Ghats
  IUCN status: Vulnerable (VU)
  Localities: Sholayar, Poringal, Vazhachal, Kallar, Thekkady, Karadikkavala, Thellickal, Karimala, Pooyamkutty along river banks, Nadugani ghats, Kakki hills, Pathenthode, Brahmagiri, on way to Kannoth, Tirunalli, near Cheeyapara falls, Mukkali forests, Boneccord, Pe
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