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  Xanthophyllum arnottianum
  Citation:  Xanthophyllum arnottianum Wight, Illustr. 1: 50. t.23. 1840; Manilal, Fl. Silent Valley 16. 1988; Babu, Fl. Malappuram Dist. 33. 1990; Sasidh. et al., Bot. Stud. Med. Pl. Kerala 25. 1996; Sasidh. & Sivar., Fl. Pl. Thrissur For. 48. 1996; Sasidh., Fl. Shenduruny WLS 28. 1997; Sivar. & Mathew, Fl. Nilambur 64. 1997; Sasidh., Fl. Periyar Tiger Reserve 21. 1998; Sasidh., Fl. Parambikulam WLS 19. 2002; Mohanan & Sivad., Fl. Agasthyamala 80. 2002; Anil Kumar et al., Fl. Pathanamthitta 64. 2005; Sunil & Sivadasan, Fl. Alappuzha Dist. 99. 2009; Ratheesh Narayanan, Fl. Stud. Wayanad Dist. 129. 2009. Xanthophyllum flavescens sensu Bennett in Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 1: 209. 1874, non Roxb. 1814; Gamble, Fl. Pres. Madras 59(42). 1915; Ramach. & V.J. Nair, Fl. Cannanore Dist. 51. 1988; Antony, Syst. Stud. Fl. Kottayam Dist. 70. 1989; Vajr., Fl. Palghat Dist. 66. 1990; R.N. Banerjee & N.P. Balakr. in B.D. Sharma & N.P. Balakr., Fl. India 2:497.1993; M. Mohanan & Henry, Fl. Thiruvanthapuram 66. 1994; Subram., Fl. Thenmala Div. 19. 1995; Pradeep, Fl. Vellarimala 22. 2000; R.N. Banerjee & N.P. Balakr. in P. Daniel, Fl. Kerala 1: 307. 2005. Xanthophyllum angustifolium Wight, Ill. 1:50. t. 23.1840; Mohanan, Fl. Quilon Dist. 75. 1984.
  Malayalam Name(s): Madukka, Madakka, Mottal
  Tamil name(s):
  English name(s):
  Description: Trees, to 10 m high, bark 5-6 mm thick, greenish-grey, smooth, semi-fibrous; branchlets puberulus. Leaves simple, alternate, spiral, 5-15 x 2.5-7.5 cm, oblong, ovate-lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, base acute or obtuse, apex acuminate, margin entire, glabrous, coriaceous; lateral nerves 5-7 pairs, pinnate, prominent, intercostae reticulate, prominent; petiole 4-7 mm, slender, glabrous. Flowers bisexual, in terminal or axillary panicled racemes, yellowish-white. Sepals 5, subequal, suborbicular, finely tomentose. Petals 5, yellow, unequal, lower boat-shaped. Stamens 8; filament free, 2 hypogynous, to the base of petals in pairs, others adnate to the base of the petals; disc 5-lobed. Ovary superior, stipitate, globose, densely strigose, 1-celled, ovules 4, 2 erect and 2 pendulous; style curved. Fruit a drupe, 12-18 mm across, globose, green, rugose, 1-seeded.
  Habit: Tree
  Flowering & Fruiting: Throughout the year
  District(s): All Districts
  Habitat: Evergreen and semi-evergreen forests, also sacred groves in the plains
  Distribution: Western Ghats
  Aquatic: No
  Epiphyte(s): No
  Saprophyte: No
  Stem parasite: No
  Root parasite: No
  Flower colour(s): White, Yellow
  Weed: No
  Monocot/Dicot: Dicotyledonous Plants
  Exotic: No
  Garden: No
  Edible: No
  Vegetable: No
  Endemic to: Western Ghats
  IUCN status:
  Altitude: 500-1500
  Localities: Vellanimala, Kattalappara, Kallar, Kumarikulam, Dhoni R. F., Nelluyampathy forests, Silent Valley R. F., Arippa, Nadugani ghats, Parambikulam, Moozhiar, Chittar, On the banks of Kunthipuzha, Pathenthode, Chandanathode, Kannoth, Manantody, Tirunalli, Kaik
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