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  Wrightia tinctoria
  Citation:  Wrightia tinctoria (Roxb.) R. Br., Mem. Wern. Nat. Hist. Soc. 1: 47. 1811; Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India 3: 653. 1882; Gamble, Fl. Pres. Madras 815(573). 1923; Mohanan, Fl. Quilon Dist. 255. 1984; Ansari, Fl. Kasaragod Div. 230. 1985; Manilal, Fl. Silent Valley 175. 1988; Ramach. & V.J. Nair, Fl. Cannanore Dist. 281. 1988; Antony, Syst. Stud. Fl. Kottayam Dist. 244. 1989; Babu, Fl. Malappuram Dist. 425(b); Vajr., Fl. Palghat Dist. 283. 1990; M. Mohanan & Henry, Fl. Thiruvanthapuram 295. 1994; Subram., Fl. Thenmala Div. 219. 1995; Sasidh. et al., Bot. Stud. Med. Pl. Kerala 9, 15; Sasidh. & Sivar., Fl. Pl. Thrissur For. 283. 1996; Sasidh., Fl. Shenduruny WLS 206. 1997; Sivar. & Mathew, Fl. Nilambur 420. 1997; Sasidh., Fl. Periyar Tiger Reserve 245. 1998; Sasidh., Fl. Chinnar WLS 189. 1999; Sasidh., Fl. Parambikulam WLS 191. 2002; Mohanan & Sivad., Fl. Agasthyamala 446. 2002; Anil Kumar et al., Fl. Pathanamthitta 314. 2005; Sunil & Sivadasan, Fl. Alappuzha Dist. 436. 2009; Ratheesh Narayanan, Fl. Stud. Wayanad Dist. 526. 2009. Nerium tinctorium Roxb., Orient. Repert. 1: 39. 1791.
  Malayalam Name(s): Aiyappala, Adukomba, Dhanthappala, Irumpala, Kambippala, Kotakappala, Neelappala, Thattan-chavana, Thinnamppala, Thondappala, Vettupala
  Tamil name(s):
  English name(s): Pala indigo, Sweet indrajao
  Description: Deciduous trees; upto 15 m; bark 8-10 mm thick, grey, smooth; outer layer thin, inner layer thick, brittle, creamy; latex milky white. Leaves simple, opposite, distichous, 3.5-11 x 2-4 cm, oblong-lanceolate or elliptic-ovate, apex acuminate or caudate acuminate, base acute, margin entire, glabrous, glaucous beneath, chartaceous; petiole 2-5 mm long, stout, glabrous; lateral nerves 5-10 pairs, slender, arched, pinnate, prominent, intercostae reticulate. Flower bisexual, white, scented, in terminal cymes appearing along with new leaves; pedicel 1.5 mm long, bracts 2, minute. Calyx lobes 5, with membranous margin, 2 mm, ovate, obtuse, ciliate, glandular inside. Corolla salver shaped, lobes 5, broad lobes 12 x 5 mm, oblong, obtuse, throat with 1-2 series of erect, fimbriate corona scales, tube 1.5-2 mm. Stamens 5, inserted on the mouth of the tube, anthers sagitate, spurred at base, conniving and adhering to the stigma; disc absent. Carpels 2, free; ovules many; style filiform, stigma ovoid, usually with a toothed basal ring. Fruit of 2 follicular mericarps, 15-45 cm long, slender, smooth, green, cylindric, cohering at the tip; seed 16 mm long, black, commate at one end.
  Habit: Tree
  Flowering & Fruiting: February-November
  District(s): All Districts
  Medicinal: Yes
  Habitat: Moist and dry deciduous forests, also in the plains
  Distribution: India, Myanmar and Timor
  Aquatic: No
  Epiphyte(s): No
  Saprophyte: No
  Stem parasite: No
  Root parasite: No
  Flower colour(s): White
  Weed: No
  Monocot/Dicot: Dicotyledonous Plants
  Exotic: No
  Garden: No
  Edible: No
  Vegetable: No
  Endemic to:
  IUCN status:
  Altitude: 400-750
  Localities: Peechi, Rosemala, Charkapetty, Vazhathura, Thekkady, Sabarimala, Vengoli, Chindaki forest, Nelluyampathy forests, Anawayi border, Sabari hills, Begur, Kannoth, Karimbam, Tirunalli, Taliparamba, Ayyappankovil, Walayar, Charummodu, Kanjirakadavu, Nellikuth
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