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  Vernonia travancorica
  Citation:  Vernonia travancorica Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India 3: 240. 1881; Gamble, Fl. Pres. Madras 673(473). 1921; Mohanan, Fl. Quilon Dist. 236. 1984; M. Mohanan & Henry, Fl. Thiruvanthapuram 270. 1994; Sasidh., Fl. Shenduruny WLS 182. 1997; Uniyal in Hajra et al., Fl. India 13: 391. 1995; Sasidh., Fl. Periyar Tiger Reserve 214. 1998; Mohanan & Sivad., Fl. Agasthyamala 397. 2002. Vernonia volkameriaefolia sensu Bedd., Fl. Sylv. t. 225. 1872 non DC. 1836.
  Malayalam Name(s): Karana, Thempu
  Tamil name(s):
  English name(s):
  Description: Trees; to 6 m high; bark grey or greyish-brown with narrow vertical fissures; blaze dull yellow with black streaks; branchlets pubescent. Leaves simple, alternate, estipulate; petiole 6-25 mm, stout, pubescent, grooved above; lamina 5-24 x 2.5-10 cm; obovate or elliptic-oblanceolate; base cuneate or attenuate; apex obtuse or obtusely acute, margin entire, undulate or distantly dentate towards distal end, glabrous, chartaceous; lateral nerves 4-8 pairs, regular, pinnate, ascending, prominent; intercostae reticulate. Flowers bisexual, pink, head homogamous of 4-6 florets, in terminal subpyramidal panicles; outer bracts orbicular, obtuse, hairy; inner bracts 7 x 2.5 mm, oblong, obtuse, glabrous; calyx tube adnate to the ovary, limb of long copious pappus; corolla 10 mm long, tubular, pink, lobes 5, glabrous; stamens 5, inserted within the corolla tube, filaments free, anthers basifixed, connate, connective produced upwards, anthers obtusely auricled at base; ovary 1-celled, ovule solitary, erect, style arms yellowish-brown, puberulous. Fruit an achene, 10-ribbed, ribs prominent with yellow glands between; pappus similar, 9-10 mm long, setaceous, white, bent at base.
  Habit: Tree
  Flowering & Fruiting: February-July
  District(s): Kollam, Idukki, Thiruvananthapuram
  Habitat: Evergreen forests and grasslands
  Distribution: Western Ghats
  Aquatic: No
  Epiphyte(s): No
  Saprophyte: No
  Stem parasite: No
  Root parasite: No
  Flower colour(s): Violet
  Weed: No
  Monocot/Dicot: Dicotyledonous Plants
  Exotic: No
  Garden: No
  Edible: No
  Vegetable: No
  Endemic to: Western Ghats
  IUCN status:
  Altitude: 1000-1400
  Localities: Rosemala, Pandimotta, Pachapallam, Mullayar, Agastyarkudam, Ponmudi, Chemungi, Athirumala
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