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  Terminalia elliptica
  Citation:  Terminalia elliptica Willd., Sp. Pl. 4: 969. 1806; Gangop. & Chakrab., Journ. Econ. Tax. Bot. 16:601.1992 & 21: 351. 1997; Sasidh., Fl. Parambikulam WLS 118. 2002; Ratheesh Narayanan, Fl. Stud. Wayanad Dist. 352. 2009. Terminalia alata Heyne ex Roth, Nov. Pl. Sp. 379. 1821; Subram., Fl. Thenmala Div. 131. 1995; Sivar. & Mathew, Fl. Nilambur 258. 1997. Terminalia crenulata Roth, Nov. Pl. Sp. 380. 1821; Gamble, Fl. Pres. Madras 465(329). 1919; Ansari, Fl. Kasaragod Div. 156. 1985; Ramach. & V.J. Nair, Fl. Cannanore Dist. 178. 1988; Subram., Fl. Thenmala Div. 130. 1995; Vajr., Fl. Palghat Dist. 197. 1990; Sasidh. et al., Bot. Stud. Med. Pl. Kerala 10,16. 1996; Sasidh. & Sivar., Fl. Pl. Thrissur For. 178. 1996; Sasidh., Fl. Shenduruny WLS 118. 1997; M. Mohanan & Henry, Fl. Thiruvanthapuram 183. 1994; Sasidh., Fl. Periyar Tiger Reserve 134. 1998; Mohanan & Sivad., Fl. Agasthyamala 250. 2002; Anil Kumar et al., Fl. Pathanamthitta 212. 2005. Terminalia coriacea (Roxb.) Wight & Arn., Prodr. 315. 1834; Gamble, Fl. Pres. Madras 465(329). 1919; Ramach. & V.J. Nair, Fl. Cannanore Dist. 178. 1988. Pentaptera coriacea Roxb., Fl. Ind. 2: 438. 1832. Terminalia tomentosa (Roxb. ex DC.) Wight & Arn., Prodr. 314. 1834; Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India 2: 447. 1878; Gamble, Fl. Pres. Madras 465(329). 1919. Terminalia tomentosa (Roxb. ex DC.) Wight & Arn. var. crenulata (Roth) Clarke in Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India 2: 448. 1878. Pentaptera crenulata (Roth) Roxb., Fl. Ind. 2: 438. 1832.
  Malayalam Name(s): Karimaruthu, Kuramaruthu, Matthi, Thembavu
  Tamil name(s):
  English name(s): Black murdah, Indian laurel
  Description: Deciduous trees, to 30 m high; bark 15-20 mm thick, surface grey-black, very rough, deeply vertically fissured, horizontally cracked, forming tessellated, thick flakes; blaze red. Leaves simple, opposite to subopposite, exstipulate; petiole 10-20 mm long, stout, grooved above, glabrous; lamina 13-20 x 5-13 cm, oblong, oblong-ovate, elliptic-oblong or elliptic-ovate; base oblique; apex acute, round, or obtuse, margin entire or crenulate, glabrous, coriaceous, midrib with 2 stalked glands near the base beneath; lateral nerves 10-20 pairs, parallel, prominent, intercostae scalariform, prominent. Flowers bisexual, dull yellow, 2-3 mm across, in terminal and axillary paniculate spikes; peduncle tomentose; bracteoles 1-2 mm long, linear or subulate; calyx tube 1-2× 1-1.8 mm, angled, base pubescent, constricted above the ovary, lobes 5, ovate, yellow, densely villous inside; petals absent; stamens 10 in 2 rows; filaments 4-5 mm; disc 5-lobed, villous; ovary 2.5 mm long, inferior, densely villous, 1-celled; ovules 2 or 3, pendulous; style 4 mm, subulate; stigma small. Fruit a drupe 3.5 x 5.5 cm, longitudinally 5-winged, glabrous; wings equal, thin, pubescent, lines on the wings horizontal, apex round, coriaceous, reddish-brown; seed one.
  Habit: Tree
  Flowering & Fruiting: April-May
  District(s): Palakkad, Idukki, Kannur, Malappuram, Kollam, Kasaragode, Pathanamthitta, Thiruvananthapuram, Thrissur, Kozhikkode, Wayanad
  Habitat: Moist and dry deciduous forests
  Distribution: India and Sri Lanka
  Aquatic: No
  Epiphyte(s): No
  Saprophyte: No
  Stem parasite: No
  Root parasite: No
  Flower colour(s): Yellow
  Weed: No
  Monocot/Dicot: Dicotyledonous Plants
  Exotic: No
  Garden: No
  Edible: No
  Vegetable: No
  Endemic to:
  IUCN status:
  Altitude: 400-1450
  Localities: Peechi, Kattalappara, Koruthode, Sabarimala, Anakkalvayal, Thellikkal, Plapally, Kannoth, Begur, Taliparamba, Tolpetty, Beemanadi, Mulleria, Pooyamkutty, Canoli, Thenmalai, Bonaccord
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