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  Streblus asper
  Family: MORACEAE
  Citation:  Streblus asper Lour., Fl. Cochinch. 615. 1790; Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India 5: 489. 1888; Gamble, Fl. Pres. Madras 1353(947). 1928; Manilal & Sivar., Fl. Calicut 274. 1982; Ansari, Fl. Kasaragod Div. 358. 1985; Antony, Syst. Stud. Fl. Kottayam Dist. 373. 1989; Babu, Fl. Malappuram Dist. 757. 1990; Vajr., Fl. Palghat Dist. 450. 1990; Sasidh. et al., Bot. Stud. Med. Pl. Kerala 18. 1996; Sasidh. & Sivar., Fl. Pl. Thrissur For. 430. 1996; Sivar. & Mathew, Fl. Nilambur 672. 1997; Sasidh., Fl. Chinnar WLS 300. 1999; Anil Kumar et al., Fl. Pathanamthitta 467. 2005; Sunil & Sivadasan, Fl. Alappuzha Dist. 667. 2009; Ratheesh Narayanan, Fl. Stud. Wayanad Dist. 776. 2009. Epicarpurus orientalis Blume, Bijdr. 488. 1826.
  Malayalam Name(s): Dindumaram, Paravamaram, Paruka, Paruva, Shangkoda-vriksham
  Tamil name(s):
  English name(s): Siamese rough-bush
  Description: Evergreen, dioecious or rarely monoecious trees, to 10 m high, bark 10-20 mm thick, light grey, smooth, lenticellate, fibrous; blaze creamy yellow; exudation milky white latex; branches often drooping; branchlets on trunk often arrested and thorny. Leaves simple, alternate, spiral; stipules 2-5 mm long, lateral, lanceolate, adpressedly hairy, cauducous; petiole to 4 mm long, slender, pubescent; lamina 3-10 x 1.2-5 cm, elliptic, elliptic-obovate or rhomboid, base cuneate, acute or obtuse, apex acute or acuminate, margin serrate, or subentire, glabrous, scabrid on both sides; 3-ribbed from base, lateral nerves 4-10 pairs, pinnate, slender, prominent, intercostae reticulate, faint. Flowers unisexual, greenish-yellow; male in axillary heads, peduncle to 10 mm, sparsely puberulous to glabrous with 1-2 small bracts at the base, occasionally on the stalk, and a few small bracts at the apex; tepals 4, free, lanceolate, 2.5 mm, puberulous without, subacute; stamens 4; filaments 2.5 mm; anthers 1 mm; female flowers axillary, solitary or 2-5 in a cluster; peduncle to 10 mm, puberulous bracts and bracteoles 2.5 mm, ovate, puberulous; tepals 4, ovate, concave, 4 mm, puberulous, subacute; ovary 3 mm, ovoid; style 1 mm long, then lengthening to 2-3 mm; stigmatic arms 3-4 mm long, lengthening to 6-12 mm long, glabrous. Fruit a drupe, 6-8 mm across, globose, obscurely 2-humped, yellow to orange, tepals persistent; seed one, 4-5 mm across, globose, greyish-white.
  Habit: Tree
  Flowering & Fruiting: January-October
  District(s): Alappuzha, Kottayam, Idukki, Kasaragode, Pathanamthitta, Malappuram, Palakkad, Kozhikkode, Thrissur, Wayanad
  Medicinal: Yes
  Habitat: Moist and dry deciduous forests, also in the plains
  Distribution: India, China and Malesia
  Aquatic: No
  Epiphyte(s): No
  Saprophyte: No
  Stem parasite: No
  Root parasite: No
  Flower colour(s): Green, Yellow
  Weed: No
  Monocot/Dicot: Dicotyledonous Plants
  Exotic: No
  Garden: No
  Edible: No
  Vegetable: No
  Endemic to:
  IUCN status:
  Localities: Vellanimala, Chinnar, Tiruvalla, Kalleli, Manjeswar, Begur, Anmooly slopes, Olipara forests, Pooyamkutty, Vandanam, Thenmalai, Ariankavu
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