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  Spilanthes ciliata
  Citation:  Spilanthes ciliata HBK, Nov. Gen. & Sp. Pl. 4: 621. 1836; Sivar. et al., Anci. Sci. of Life 3: 171. 1984; Sivar. & Remesan, Journ. Econ. Tax. Bot. 10: 145. 1987; Babu, Fl. Malappuram Dist. 380. 1990; H.J. Chowdhery in Hajra et al., Fl. India 12: 409. 1995; Sasidh. & Sivar., Fl. Pl. Thrissur For. 254. 1996; Sasidh., Fl. Shenduruny WLS 178. 1997; Sivar. & Mathew, Fl. Nilambur 378. 1997; Joseph, Aquatic Angiosp. Malabar 52. 1991; Anil Kumar et al., Fl. Pathanamthitta 288. 2005; Sunil & Sivadasan, Fl. Alappuzha Dist. 390. 2009. Acmella ciliata (HBK) Cass., Dict. Sc. Nat. 24: 331. 1822.
  Malayalam Name(s): Kuppamaniyan, Pallu-vedana-chedi
  Tamil name(s):
  English name(s):
  Description: Diffuse herbs rooting at lower nodes; stem terete. Leaves simple,opposite, 7 x 4 cm, ovate, base rounded or subcordate, margins serrate, apex acute; petiole 1-2.5 cm long. Heads rayed, axillary, usually solitary, rarely 2-3 in each axil, c. 1 cm across, subglobose, turning conical, yellow; peduncle 3-8 cm long. Involucral bracts 2-seriate, shorter than ray florets, inner series narrower and smaller, up to 6 x 2 mm, elliptic, subacute. Palea c. 3 mm long, boat-shaped, concave, obtuse, keeled. Ray florets 8-12, female, ligulate; corolla tube c. 1 mm long, limb 3-lobed; pappus of 3 awns, deciduous; achenes trigonous, black, strongly margined and ciliate along the margins. Disc florets many, biusexual; pappus of 2 unequal bristles; corolla tube c. 2 mm long, lobes much shorter than the tube; achenes c. 2 x 0.5 mm, oblong, truncate at apex, laterally compressed, black, stronglyt margined, ciliate along the margins.
  Habit: Herb
  Flowering & Fruiting: August-December
  District(s): Alappuzha, Pathanamthitta, Malappuram, Kollam, Thrissur, Thiruvananthapuram, Kannur
  Medicinal: Yes
  Habitat: Wet or marshy areas
  Distribution: Neotropics of the world; now naturalised in Western Peninsular India
  Aquatic: Yes
  Epiphyte(s): No
  Saprophyte: No
  Stem parasite: No
  Root parasite: No
  Flower colour(s): Yellow
  Weed: No
  Monocot/Dicot: Dicotyledonous Plants
  Exotic: Yes
  Garden: No
  Edible: No
  Vegetable: No
  Endemic to:
  IUCN status:
  Localities: Sholayar, Puthukulam, Punnamada, Karuvarakundu
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