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  Shirakiopsis indica
  Citation:  Shirakiopsis indica (Willd.) Esser, Blumea 44: 185. 1999; N.P.Balakr. & Chakrab., Fam. Euphorbiaceae India 294. 2007. Sapium indicum Willd., Sp. Pl. 4: 572.1805; Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India 471. 1888; Gamble, Fl. Pres. Madras 1346(941). 1925. Stillingia indica (Willd.) Oken, Allg. Naturgesch. 3: 1606. 1841. Excoecaria indica (Willd.) Muell.-Arg., Linnaea 32: 123. 1863; Mohanan, Fl. Quilon Dist. 366. 1984; Chakrab. & Gangop., Journ. Econ. Tax. Bot. 18: 206. 1994; Anupama & Sivad., Rheedea 14: 29. 2004; Sunil & Sivadasan, Fl. Alappuzha Dist. 634. 2009.
  Malayalam Name(s): Karimatti, Penkolam, Chillakkambatti
  Tamil name(s):
  English name(s): Swamp willow
  Description: Evergreen trees, to 8 m high, bark greyish or pale brown, smooth, lenticellate; exudation milky acrid; branchlets greyish, terete. Leaves simple, alternate, stipulate; stipules minute, lateral; petiole 5-15 mm long, stout, grooved above, glabrous; lamina 4-15 x 2-4 cm, elliptic-lanceolate, lanceolate, oblong or oblong-elliptic, base acute or cuneate, apex caudate, acuminate or acute, margin crenate, coriaceous, glabrous, glossy above; lateral nerves 5-22 pairs, slender, pinnate, prominent, intercostae reticulate, prominent. Flowers unisexual, yellowish-green, in terminal or lateral racemes, to 10 cm long with a series of spirally arranged bracts; bracts subtending 5-7 male flowers and large glands on either side; female flowers: 1-2 at base; pedicels upto 4 cm long, slender; tepals 3, connate, 1-1.5 × 1.4-2 mm; ovary superior, 1.5-2 mm across, 3-celled, ovules one in each cell; styles 3, simple, spreading, recurved, shortly connate at base; stigma linear, glandular. Fruit a capsule, 2.5-3 cm across, globose, unlobed or scarcely lobed, 3-locular, dehiscent; seeds 12-12 x 5-7 mm, dark brown, oblong-ovoid.
  Habit: Tree
  Flowering & Fruiting: April-December
  District(s): Alappuzha, Kollam, Ernakulam
  Habitat: Along backwaters and mangrove forests
  Distribution: Peninsular India
  Aquatic: Yes
  Epiphyte(s): No
  Saprophyte: No
  Stem parasite: No
  Root parasite: No
  Flower colour(s): Yellow, Green
  Weed: No
  Monocot/Dicot: Dicotyledonous Plants
  Exotic: No
  Garden: No
  Edible: No
  Vegetable: No
  Endemic to:
  IUCN status:
  Localities: Thrikkunnapuzha
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