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  Sapindus emarginatus
  Citation:  Sapindus emarginatus Vahl, Symb. Bot. 3: 54. 1794; Gamble, Fl. Pres. Madras 250(178). 1918; Babu, Fl. Malappuram Dist. 144. 1990; Sasidh., Fl. Periyar Tiger Reserve 80. 1998; Sasidh., Fl. Chinnar WLS 78. 1999; P.C. Pant in N.P. Singh et al., Fl. India 5: 381. 2000; Sasidh., Fl. Parambikulam WLS 75. 2002; P. Singh & E. Vajr. in P. Daniel, Fl. Kerala 1: 784. 2005. Sapindus trifoliata sensu Hiern in Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India 1: 682. 1875,p.p., non L. 1753.
  Malayalam Name(s): Chuvappukamaram, Pachakotta, Pasakottamaram, Soppinkaimaram, Soapumka, Uravanchi, Urungi
  Tamil name(s): Arishta
  English name(s): Soapnut tree
  Description: Trees, to 10 m high, bark dark-brown, rough; branchlets tomentose. Leaves paripinnate, alternate, exstipulate; rachis 25-100 mm, stout, tomentose, swollen at base; leaflets 4 or 6, opposite or subopposite; petiolule 2-3 mm, stout, tomentose; lamina 3-15 x 1.5-5.5 cm, oblong-obovate, oblanceolate or oblong, base cuneate or obtuse, apex obtuse, round and emarginate, margin entire, glabrescent above, softly tomentose beneath and midrib above, coriaceous; lateral nerves 4-12 pairs, pinnate, prominent, ascending, secondary laterals prominent, intercostae reticulate, prominent. Flowers polygamous, greenish-white, in terminal and axillary panicles; branches pubescent; sepals 5, 2-seriate, 3-4 mm, ovate-orbicular, unequal, ciliate, imbricate; petals 5, obovate, 2.5 mm, equal, clawed, glabrous on the inner surface except for 1-2 tufts of white hairs above the claw; disc annular, 5-lobed, strigose; stamens 8, inserted within the disc; filaments unequal, pilose, free; anthers oblong; ovary superior, trigonus, 3-celled, ovule 1 in each cell; style terminal; stigma 3-lobed. Fruit a drupe of 3 indehiscent cocci, combined about half way up and then separating with saponaceous fibrous pericarp; smooth and slightly pubescent when young, later glabrous and wrinkled; seeds black, globose, smooth.
  Habit: Tree
  Flowering & Fruiting: November-March
  District(s): Palakkad, Idukki, Malappuram
  Medicinal: Yes
  Habitat: Dry deciduous forests and margins of grasslands
  Distribution: South Asia
  Aquatic: No
  Epiphyte(s): No
  Saprophyte: No
  Stem parasite: No
  Root parasite: No
  Flower colour(s): Green, White
  Weed: No
  Monocot/Dicot: Dicotyledonous Plants
  Exotic: No
  Garden: No
  Edible: No
  Vegetable: No
  Endemic to:
  IUCN status:
  Localities: Churullipetty, Brandippara, Keerapady, Pooyamkutty
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