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  Rhizophora apiculata
  Citation:  Rhizophora apiculata Blume, Enum. Pl. Jav. 1: 91. 1827; Mohanan, Fl. Quilon Dist. 173. 1984; Anupama & Sivad., Rheedea 14: 34. 2004; Sunil & Sivadasan, Fl. Alappuzha Dist. 279. 2009. Rhizophora candelaria DC., Prodr. 3: 32. 1828; Gamble, Fl. Pres. Madras 456(323). 1919. Rhizophora conjugata Arn., Ann. Nat. Hist. 1: 363. 1838; Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India 2: 436. 1878.
  Malayalam Name(s): Kaya-kandel, Vallikandel
  Tamil name(s):
  English name(s):
  Description: Evergreen trees, to 5 m high; trunk and lower branches supported by numerous profusely looping stilt roots and prop roots corky, lenticellate; bark brown, fissured; branchlets terete, glabrous, reddish-brown or greyish-white, with conspicuous circular, scaly, brown stipular scar. Leaves simple, opposite, decussate, clustered towards the apex; stipules interpetiolar, 9 x 1.5 cm, pale red; petiole 20-30 mm long, stout, grooved above, pale green, glabrous; lamina 13-17 x 4-7 cm, elliptic, oblong, oblanceolate or ovate-lanceolate, base cuneate, apex apiculate, margin entire, glabrous, coriaceous, dark, green above, pale green beneath; lateral nerves 10-15 pairs, slender, pinnate, secondary laterals present, obscure; intercostae reticulate, faint. Flowers bisexual, greenish-white, 2.2 x 1.5 cm, sessile, in axillary unbranched 2 flowered cymes; peduncle to 5 mm long, glabrous; bracts small, connate; bracteoles 2, connate, cupular, 5 mm across, dark brown, surface wrinkled and cracked, enclosing the base of the calyx; calyx externally fissured, brownish-yellow outside and yellowish-white and glabrous within; lobes 4, 1.5 x 0.7 cm, ovate-oblong, acute, fleshy, persistent; petals 4, free, 9 x 2.5 mm, narrow-lanceolate, acute, white, thin, flat, glabrous, persistent; stamens 11 or 12, free, sessile, inserted on the margin of the receptacular disc; anthers 8 mm long, multilocellate; pistil conoid, slightly angled; ovary half inferior, inserted within and fused with the calyx cup, 2-celled, ovules 2 in each cell, pendulous, style short, stigma bifid. Fruit a drupe, 2-4 cm long, conical, pericarp brown, thick, leathery, calyx lobes reflexed; seed one; hypocotyl 50 x 1.8 cm, piercing the apex of the fruit, cylindric, thick towards the radicle tip, tip blunt, straight with a slight curvature at plumular end; cotyledonary collar protruded and exposed on maturity.
  Habit: Tree
  Flowering & Fruiting: Throughout the year
  District(s): Alappuzha, Kollam, Ernakulam, Kozhikkode, Kannur, Kasaragode, Thiruvananthapuram, Kottayam, Thrissur
  Medicinal: Yes
  Habitat: Mangrove swamps
  Distribution: Indo-Malesia
  Aquatic: Yes
  Epiphyte(s): No
  Saprophyte: No
  Stem parasite: No
  Root parasite: No
  Flower colour(s): Green, White
  Weed: No
  Monocot/Dicot: Dicotyledonous Plants
  Exotic: No
  Garden: No
  Edible: No
  Vegetable: No
  Endemic to:
  IUCN status:
  Localities: Kumbolichira
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