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  Pterocarpus marsupium
 
  Family: FABACEAE/LEGUMINOSAE (Subfam.: Papilionoideae)
  Citation:  Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb., Pl. Corom. t. 116. 1799; Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India 2: 239. 1876; Gamble, Fl. Pres. Madras 385(271). 1918; Mohanan, Fl. Quilon Dist. 154. 1984; Ansari, Fl. Kasaragod Div. 132. 1985; Ramach. & V.J. Nair, Fl. Cannanore Dist. 152. 1988; Antony, Syst. Stud. Fl. Kottayam Dist. 135. 1989; Vajr., Fl. Palghat Dist. 168. 1990; Sanjappa, Legumes Ind. 232. 1992; M. Mohanan & Henry, Fl. Thiruvanthapuram 156. 1994; Sasidh. et al., Bot. Stud. Med. Pl. Kerala 10,17. 1996; Sasidh. & Sivar., Fl. Pl. Thrissur For. 149. 1996; Sasidh., Fl. Shenduruny WLS 99. 1997; Sivar. & Mathew, Fl. Nilambur 187. 1997; Sasidh., Fl. Periyar Tiger Reserve 112. 1998; Sasidh., Fl. Chinnar WLS 102. 1999; Sasidh., Fl. Parambikulam WLS 98. 2002; Mohanan & Sivad., Fl. Agasthyamala 217. 2002; Anil Kumar et al., Fl. Pathanamthitta 188. 2005; Sunil & Sivadasan, Fl. Alappuzha Dist. 235. 2009; Ratheesh Narayanan, Fl. Stud. Wayanad Dist. 301. 2009.
  Malayalam Name(s): Karavenga, Venna, Venga
  Tamil name(s):
  English name(s): Bijasal, Bastard teak, East Indian Kino, Gammalu, Indian kino tree, Kino, Malabar kino tree
  Description: Deciduous trees, to 30 m high, bark 10-15 mm, surface grey or greyish-black, rough, deeply vertically cracked, exfoliations small, irregular, fibrous; exudation blood-red. Leaves imparipinnate, alternate, leaflets 5-7, alternate, estipulate, 3.5-12.5 x 2-7 cm, elliptic-oblong, oblong-ovate or oblong, apex obtuse and emarginate, base obtuse or acute,margin entire, glabrous, coriaceous; stipules small, lateral, cauducous; rachis 6.5-11.1 cm long, slender, pulvinate, glabrous; petiolule 6-10 mm, slender, glabrous; lateral nerves 9-20 pairs, parallel, prominent, ascending, secondary laterals prominent; intercostae reticulate, prominent. Flowers bisexual, yellow, in terminal and axillary panicles; 10-12 mm long; bracts small, dioecious; bracteoles 2, cauducous. Calyx tube campanulate, lobes short, the upper 2 often connate; corolla exserted. Petals 5, all long-clawed, crisped along the margins; standard orbicular, wings oblique, obovate, auricled; keel petals oblique, small, slightly connate. Stamens 10, monadelphous; filaments subequal; anthers uniform. Ovary shortly stalked, inferior, tomentose, 1-celled, ovules 2; style filiform, in curved, beardless; stigma capitate. Fruit a pod, 2.5-5 cm across, orbicular-reniform, broadly winged; seed one, subreniform.
  Habit: Tree
  Flowering & Fruiting: September-October
  District(s): All Districts
  Medicinal: Yes
  Habitat: Moist and dry deciduous forests, also in the plains
  Distribution: India and Sri Lanka
  Aquatic: No
  Epiphyte(s): No
  Saprophyte: No
  Stem parasite: No
  Root parasite: No
  Flower colour(s): Yellow
  Weed: No
  Monocot/Dicot: Dicotyledonous Plants
  Exotic: No
  Garden: No
  Edible: No
  Vegetable: No
  Endemic to:
  IUCN status:
  Altitude: 300-750
  Localities: Peechi, Kattalappara, Kalladuthupurai, Alampetty, Thekkady, Vengoli, Kottur R.F., Konni, Tirunalli, Taliparamba, Santhanpara, Mukkali forests, Attappady-Chindaki forests, Boneccord, Kallar, Beemanadi, Cherthala, Saivila, Ampumala, Kottur, Bonaccord, Atta
   
 
   
 
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