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  Pedalium murex
  Citation:  Pedalium murex L., Syst. Nat. (ed.10) 1123. 1759; Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India 4: 386. 1884; Gamble, Fl. Pres. Madras 1001(704). 1924; Manilal & Sivar., Fl. Calicut 212. 1982; Mohanan, Fl. Quilon Dist. 296. 1984; Ansari, Fl. Kasaragod Div. 271. 1985; Ramach. & V.J. Nair, Fl. Cannanore Dist. 328. 1988; Babu, Fl. Malappuram Dist. 561. 1990; Vajr., Fl. Palghat Dist. 337. 1990; M. Mohanan & Henry, Fl. Thiruvanthapuram 339. 1994; Sunil & Sivadasan, Fl. Alappuzha Dist. 527. 2009; Ratheesh Narayanan, Fl. Stud. Wayanad Dist. 603. 2009.
  Malayalam Name(s): Aananjerinjil, Aanayiruthimullu, Kakkamullu, Kattunjerinjil
  Tamil name(s):
  English name(s): Bara Gokhru
  Description: A diffuse annual, much branched, spreading, succulent, glandular, up to 60 cm tall. Roots similar to turmeric in colour. Leaves simple, opposite, ovate or oblong-obovate, 1-4.5 cm long, 0.5-3 cm broad, truncate or obtuse, irregularly and coarsely crenate-serrate, glabrous above, minutely scaly below, petiole-l-4 cm. Flowers 1.5-2 cm across; pedicel 1-2 mm long, increasing up to 4 mm in fruit. Calyx c.2 mm long; teeth linear, scaly outside, persistent. Petals connate into a broad tube, 1-3 cm long; lobes obtuse. Stamens included, 0.5-1 cm long; filaments dilated, glandular hairy at the base; anthers kidney shaped. Fruit indehiscent, abruptly narrowed at the base and with a patent spreading spine at each basal corner of the broader part, 1-1.8 cm long, 0.5-1 cm broad, spine 2-4 mm long. Seeds 2 or 1 per locule, oblong.
  Habit: Herb
  Flowering & Fruiting: November-December
  District(s): All Districts
  Medicinal: Yes
  Habitat: Wastelands
  Distribution: Tropical Africa, Sri Lanka, India and Pakistan
  Aquatic: No
  Epiphyte(s): No
  Saprophyte: No
  Stem parasite: No
  Root parasite: No
  Flower colour(s): Yellow
  Weed: Yes
  Monocot/Dicot: Dicotyledonous Plants
  Exotic: No
  Garden: No
  Edible: No
  Vegetable: No
  Endemic to:
  IUCN status:
  Localities: Cannanore, Bekal, Walayar, Kasaragod, Ambalapuzha
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