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  Paracroton pendulus ssp. zeylanicus
  Citation:  Paracroton pendulus (Hassk.) Miq. ssp. zeylanicus (Thw.) Balakr. & Chakrab., Kew Bull. 48: 719. 1993; Sasidh. & Sivar., Fl. Pl. Thrissur For. 411. 1996; Sivar. & Mathew, Fl. Nilambur 633. 1997; Sasidh., Fl. Periyar Tiger Reserve 376. 1998; Sasidh., Fl. Parambikulam WLS 296. 2002; N.P.Balakr. & Chakrab., Fam. Euphorbiaceae India 218. 2007; Ratheesh Narayanan, Fl. Stud. Wayanad Dist. 748. 2009. Desmostemon zeylanicus Thw., Enum. Pl. Zeyl. 278. 1861. Ostodes zeylanica (Thw.) Muell.-Arg., Linnaea 34: 214. 1865; Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India 5: 400. 1887; Gamble, Fl. Pres. Madras 1336(934). 1925. Fahrenheitia zeylanica (Thw.) Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 20: 410. 1966; Manilal, Fl. Silent Valley 250. 1988; Vajr., Fl. Palghat Dist. 429. 1990; Subram., Fl. Thenmala Div. 329. 1995; Sasidh. et al., Bot. Stud. Med. Pl. Kerala 22,31. 1996; Sasidh., Fl. Shenduruny WLS 288. 1997.
  Malayalam Name(s): Modakam, Modha, Vellamaram
  Tamil name(s):
  English name(s):
  Description: Trees, to 20 m high; bark greyish-brown; blaze dull yellow; branches angled. Leaves simple, alternate; stipules lateral, cauducous; petiole 40-70 mm long, stout with 4 glands at the apex of the petiole in 2 rows on either side, leoidote scales present; lamina 15-30 x 7.5-12 cm, oblong, elliptic-oblong or obovate, base acute, apex obtusely acuminate, margin distantly serrate, glabrous, coriaceous; lateral nerves 10-15 pairs, pinnate, ascending, prominent; intercostae scalariform, prominent. Flowers unisexual, white, in lax terminal and lateral elongate pendulous racemes; bracts ovate, ciliate; tepals 10 in 2 rows; outer 5 unequal, densely lepidote-scaly outside; inner 5 longer than outer lobes, white; disc glands 5-10; stamens many, filaments free; ovary 3-celled, ovule 1 in each cell; styles 3, bifid. Fruit a capsule, 2.5-3 cm across, rusty tomentose, globose, splitting into 3, 2 valved cocci; sees ovoid.
  Habit: Tree
  Flowering & Fruiting: March-April
  District(s): Palakkad, Idukki, Kollam, Malappuram, Thrissur, Wayanad, Kannur
  Habitat: Evergreen and semi-evergreen forests
  Distribution: Western Ghats and Sri Lanka
  Aquatic: No
  Epiphyte(s): No
  Saprophyte: No
  Stem parasite: No
  Root parasite: No
  Flower colour(s): Yellow, Creamy
  Weed: No
  Monocot/Dicot: Dicotyledonous Plants
  Exotic: No
  Garden: No
  Edible: No
  Vegetable: No
  Endemic to:
  IUCN status:
  Localities: Vellanimala, Vazhachal, Rosemala, Kallar, Deviar, Vengoli, Pooppara, Poochapara, Mukkali forests, Kudam-Siruvani forests, Ayyappankovil, Pooyamkutty, Thalichola, Nadugani ghats, Ettapadappu, Rockwood
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