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  Kandelia candel
  Citation:  Kandelia candel (L.) Druce, Rep. Bot. Exch. Club. British Ist. 1913: 4210. 1914; Manilal & Sivar., Fl. Calicut 103. 1982; Mohanan, Fl. Quilon Dist. 172. 1984; Ansari, Fl. Kasaragod Div. 154. 1985; Antony, Syst. Stud. Fl. Kottayam Dist. 157. 1989; Babu, Fl. Malappuram Dist. 239. 1990; Anupama & Sivad., Rheedea 14: 32. 2004; Sunil & Sivadasan, Fl. Alappuzha Dist. 278. 2009. Rhizophora candel L., Sp. Pl. 443. 1753. Kandelia rheedei Wight & Arn., Prodr. 311. 1834; Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India 2: 437. 1878; Gamble, Fl. Pres. Madras 457(324). 1919.
  Malayalam Name(s): Cherukandal, Nallakandal
  Tamil name(s):
  English name(s):
  Description: Evergreen trees, to 6 m high; bole buttressed; bark dark brown, smooth; branchlets, terete, glabrous, reddish-brown; stipular scar narrow, thin, brown layered; leaf scar round, prominent. Leaves simple, opposite, decussate, stipulate, clustered at the shoot apex; stipules 2.5 cm long, pale green; petiole 15-20 mm long, stout, glabrous; lamina 8.5-12 x 3-4.5 cm, oblong or lanceolate, base cuneate, apex emarginate, margin entire, glabrous, coriaceous, shiny-green above and pale green beneath; lateral nerves 7-9 pairs, pinnate, slender, obscure, intercostae obscure. Flowers bisexual, white, 2.2 x 3.3 cm, in axillary dichotomously branched 4-flowered cymes; peduncle 4.4 cm long, terete, glabrous; bracts minute, cupular, at each node on peduncle; pedicel 3 mm long, terete, glabrous; bracteoles 2, connate to form a cup enclosing the calyx base, glabrous; calyx white, tube cupular, smooth, glabrous, enclosing the ovary; lobes 5, 1.5 cm long, linear, thick, fleshy, glabrous, persistent; petals 5, free, 5 mm long, white, deeply bilobed, lobes equal with 3-6 cilia at apex, glabrous; stamens many, free, inserted on the rim of calyx cup, filaments unequal, 0.7-1.2 cm long, terete, anthers basifixed, bilobed; ovary half inferior, inserted and fused with the calyx cup, single celled, ovules 6, pendulous, attached to the tip of central axis; style filiform, terete; stigma minutely 3-lobed. Fruit a drupe, 1.5-2 cm long, ovoid-conical; calyx lobes reflexed; peduncle elongating; seed one; hypocotyl 40 x 1.5 cm, spindle shaped, slightly curved with pointed radicle, surface smooth, green; cotyledonary collar protruded and exposed on maturity.
  Habit: Tree
  Flowering & Fruiting: January-August
  District(s): Kottayam, Alappuzha, Kasaragode, Kollam, Malappuram, Kozhikkode, Ernakulam, Kannur, Thrissur
  Habitat: Mangrove swamps
  Distribution: Indo-Melasia and China
  Aquatic: Yes
  Epiphyte(s): No
  Saprophyte: No
  Stem parasite: No
  Root parasite: No
  Flower colour(s): White
  Weed: No
  Monocot/Dicot: Dicotyledonous Plants
  Exotic: No
  Garden: No
  Edible: No
  Vegetable: No
  Endemic to:
  IUCN status:
  Localities: Payyanur, Thanneermukkam
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