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  Justicia betonica var. betonica
  Citation:  Justicia betonica L., Sp. Pl. 15. 1753, var. betonica; Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India 4:525.1885; Gamble, Fl. Pres. Madras 1078(755).1924; Manilal & Sivar., Fl. Calicut 218. 1982; Mohanan, Fl. Quilon Dist. 305. 1984; Manilal, Fl. Silent Valley 205. 1988; Antony, Syst. Stud. Fl. Kottayam Dist. 304. 1989; Ramach. & V.J. Nair, Fl. Cannanore Dist. 340. 1988; Babu, Fl. Malappuram Dist. 587. 1990; Vajr., Fl. Palghat Dist. 351. 1990; M. Mohanan & Henry, Fl. Thiruvanthapuram 349. 1994; Subram., Fl. Thenmala Div. 273. 1995; Sasidh. & Sivar., Fl. Pl. Thrissur For. 341. 1996; Sivar. & Mathew, Fl. Nilambur 506. 1997; Sasidh., Fl. Shenduruny WLS 234. 1997; Sasidh., Fl. Periyar Tiger Reserve 297. 1998; Sasidh., Fl. Chinnar WLS 235. 1999; Sasidh., Fl. Parambikulam WLS 230. 2002; Anil Kumar et al., Fl. Pathanamthitta 381. 2005; Sunil & Sivadasan, Fl. Alappuzha Dist. 542. 2009; Ratheesh Narayanan, Fl. Stud. Wayanad Dist. 616. 2009. Adhatoda betonica (L.) Nees in Wall., Pl. Asiat. Rar. 3: 103. 1832.
  Malayalam Name(s): Vellakurinji, Venkurinni, Paduthamara
  Tamil name(s):
  English name(s): White Shrimp plant, Squirrel Tail, Paper Plume
  Description: Diffusely branched more or less decumbent subshrubs; stem cylindrical, striate, with swollen nodes. Leaves opposite, 5-10 x 3.5-4 cm, ovate, acute at base, acuminate at apex, entire at margins, glabrous; lateral nerves 4-6 pairs. Flowers in terminal spikes; bracts ovate, acute, mucronate, white with green veins, glabrous; bracteoles lanceolate, unequal sided, white with green veins. Calyx 5-partite, to 5 mm long; segments linear-lanceolate. Corolla to 1.25 cm long, pubescent outside, dull white, 2-lipped; upper lip erect emarginated; lower lip deflexed, 3-lobed. Stamens 4; filaments hairy at their base; lower anther cell with a long spur. Ovary 2-celled, ovules 2 in each cell; style pubescent. Capsule softly pubescent, broadly clavate; seeds 4, suborbicular, densely tuberculately rugose when wetted.
  Habit: Shrub
  Flowering & Fruiting: November-January
  District(s): All Districts
  Medicinal: Yes
  Habitat: Moist deciduous forests and wastelands
  Distribution: Paleotropics
  Aquatic: No
  Epiphyte(s): No
  Saprophyte: No
  Stem parasite: No
  Root parasite: No
  Flower colour(s): White
  Weed: No
  Monocot/Dicot: Dicotyledonous Plants
  Exotic: No
  Garden: No
  Edible: No
  Vegetable: No
  Endemic to:
  IUCN status:
  Localities: Sholayar, Kallar, Churullipetty, Thekkady, Karimala, Nilambur, Valiyaparathode, Plapally, Konni, Chandanathode, Kannoth, Karivara slopes, Kayamkulam, Canoli, Thenmalai, Ariankavu
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