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  Hydnocarpus pentandra
  Citation:  Hydnocarpus pentandra (Buch.-Ham.) Oken, Allg. Naturf. 3: 1381. 1841; Mohanan, Fl. Quilon Dist. 73. 1984; Ramach. & V.J. Nair, Fl. Cannanore Dist. 50. 1988; Ansari, Fl. Kasaragod Div. 65. 1985; Antony, Syst. Stud. Fl. Kottayam Dist. 68. 1989; Babu, Fl. Malappuram Dist. 27. 1990; Vajr., Fl. Palghat Dist. 61. 1990; R.L. Mitra in B.D. Sharma & N.P. Balakr., Fl. India 2: 422. 1993; M. Mohanan & Henry, Fl. Thiruvanthapuram 62. 1994; Subram., Fl. Thenmala Div. 15. 1995; Sasidh. et al., Bot. Stud. Med. Pl. Kerala 31. 1996; Sasidh. & Sivar., Fl. Pl. Thrissur For. 46. 1996; Sasidh., Fl. Shenduruny WLS 27. 1997; Sivar. & Mathew, Fl. Nilambur 59. 1997; Sasidh., Fl. Periyar Tiger Reserve 19. 1998; Ravikumar & Ved, Illustr. Field Guide 100 Red Listed Med. Pl. 203. 2000 Pradeep, Fl. Vellarimala 21. 2000; Sasidh., Fl. Parambikulam WLS 17. 2002; Anil Kumar et al., Fl. Pathanamthitta 59. 2005; N.P. Balakr. in P. Daniel, Fl. Kerala 1: 276. 2005; Sunil & Sivadasan, Fl. Alappuzha Dist. 97. 2009; Ratheesh Narayanan, Fl. Stud. Wayanad Dist. 124. 2009. Chilmoria pentandra Buch.-Ham., Trans. Linn. Soc. London 13. 501. 1822. Hydnocarpus laurifolia (Dennst.) Sleum. in Engl., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 69: 33. 1938. Hydnocarpus wightiana Blume, Rumph. 4: 22. 1848; Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India 1: 196. 1872; Gamble, Fl. Pres. Madras 52(37). 1915.
  Malayalam Name(s): Kotti, Maravetti, Marotti, Neeratti, Niralam, Thamana
  Tamil name(s):
  English name(s): Chaulmugra
  Description: Dioecious trees, to 25 m high, bole fluted; bark 4-5 mm thick, surface pale brown mottled with white patches, smooth, brittle; branchlets pubescent. Leaves simple, alternate, 8-17 x 3-8 cm, elliptic, elliptic-lanceolate or elliptic-oblong, apex acuminate, base acute, obtuse or round, margin crenate, serrate or entire, glabrous, coriaceous; lateral nerves 6-8 pairs, pinnate, prominent, intercostae scalariform, prominent; petiole 8-10 mm, stout, pubescent, grooved above; stipules small, lateral, cauducous. Flowers unisexual, 5-10 mm across, greenish-yellow, solitary or in small fascicle. Sepals 5, broadly ovate, pubescent. Petals 5, broadly ovate, greenish-yellow, fringed with soft white hairs, with a scale at the base; scales half as long as petals, densely hairy. Stamens 5-15; filaments subulate, hairy at the base; anthers of female flowers possess no pollen; ovary globose, 1-celled, tomentose; stigma sessile and two lobbed. Fruit a berry 5-7 cm across, globose, rind thick, brown, rough with uneven surface; seeds numerous, yellowish, obtusely angular.
  Habit: Tree
  Flowering & Fruiting: December-May
  District(s): All Districts
  Medicinal: Yes
  Habitat: Semi-evergreen and moist deciduous forests, also in the plains
  Distribution: Western Ghats
  Aquatic: No
  Epiphyte(s): No
  Saprophyte: No
  Stem parasite: No
  Root parasite: No
  Flower colour(s): Green, Yellow
  Weed: No
  Monocot/Dicot: Dicotyledonous Plants
  Exotic: No
  Garden: No
  Edible: No
  Vegetable: No
  Endemic to: Western Ghats
  IUCN status:
  Altitude: 400-900
  Localities: Sholayar, Vellanimala, Vazhachal, Elanad, Kattalappara, Inchippara, Koruthode, Walayar, Panapuzha, Manjeri, Thellikkal, Orukomban, Chathanathara, Begur, Taliparamba, Kannoth, Karimbam, Panathur, Sreekantapuram, Dhoni R. F., Mukkali forests, Valavanadu, K
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