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  Holigarna grahamii
  Citation:  Holigarna grahamii (Wight) Kurz, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal 42: 305. 1872; Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India 2: 37. 1876; Gamble, Fl. Pres. Madras 268(191). 1918; Vajr., Fl. Palghat Dist. 136. 1990; Sasidh. et al., Bot. Stud. Med. Pl. Kerala 29. 1996; Sasidh. & Sivar., Fl. Pl. Thrissur For. 121. 1996; Sasidh., Fl. Periyar Tiger Reserve 82. 1998; D. Chandra & S.K. Mukh. in N.P. Singh et al., Fl. India 5: 460. 2000; Sasidh., Fl. Parambikulam WLS 78. 2002; Anil Kumar et al., Fl. Pathanamthitta 146. 2005; V. Chandra. in P. Daniel, Fl. Kerala 1: 805. 2005; Ratheesh Narayanan, Fl. Stud. Wayanad Dist. 252. 2009. Semecarpus grahamii Wight, Ic. t. 235. 1839. Holigarna wightii Balakr., Journ. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 63: 327. 1966.
  Malayalam Name(s): Bipti, Balwuli, Cheru, Nai-cheru, Vellacheru
  Tamil name(s):
  English name(s):
  Description: Large evergreen trees, to 30 m high, bark 20-25 mm thick, surface yellowish-grey, mottled with green and white, smooth, lenticellate; outer bark 1-2 mm thick, dead, corky, inner bark thick, brittle, inner layers fibrous; exudation scanty, colourless, become black on drying; branchlets brown tomentose. Leaves simple, alternate, clustered at the tips of branchlets, 15-70 x 7-25 cm, oblanceolate, suddenly broad above the middle, apex acuminate, base cuneate or acute, margin entire, glabrous above, densely golden brown tomentose below, coriaceous; petiole 15-50 mm long, stout, broadened at base, brown tomentose; spur 2 pairs, stout, persistent, brown tomentose; lateral nerves many, parallel, prominent; intercostae reticulate, prominent. Flowers small, polygamous, dull white, in terminal rusty tomentose panicles. Calyx cupular, shortly 5-toothed. Petals 5, cohering at the base and with the edge of the disc, villous within; disc lining the calyx tube, obscure in bisexual flowers. Stamens 5, inserted outside the disc; filaments subulate; anthers versatile. Ovary inferior, 1-celled, ovule pendulous from near the top of the cell.; styles usually 3, divergent; stigmas capitate. Fruit a drupe, 2/3-3/4th included in hypocarp, vertically shallowly grooved, ovoid, reddish-purple.
  Habit: Tree
  Flowering & Fruiting: October-March
  District(s): Palakkad, Idukki, Pathanamthitta, Thrissur, Wayanad, Kozhikkode, Kollam, Malappuram, Kannur
  Habitat: Evergreen forests
  Distribution: Western Ghats
  Aquatic: No
  Epiphyte(s): No
  Saprophyte: No
  Stem parasite: No
  Root parasite: No
  Flower colour(s): White
  Weed: No
  Monocot/Dicot: Dicotyledonous Plants
  Exotic: No
  Garden: No
  Edible: No
  Vegetable: No
  Endemic to: Western Ghats
  IUCN status: Vulnerable (VU)
  Localities: Sholayar, Vazhani, Vallakkadavu, Kariamchola, Pezha, Nadugani ghats, Moozhiar, Mukkali forests, Kaikatty forests-Pothundy
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