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  Holigarna ferruginea
  Citation:  Holigarna ferruginea Marchand, Rev. Anacard. 171. 1868; Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India 2: 37. 1876; Gamble, Fl. Pres. Madras 268(191). 1918; Ramach. & V.J. Nair, Fl. Cannanore Dist. 117. 1988; Sasidh. et al., Bot. Stud. Med. Pl. Kerala 21. 1996; Sasidh., Fl. Periyar Tiger Reserve 82. 1998; D. Chandra & S.K. Mukh. in N.P. Singh et al., Fl. India 5: 459. 2000; Sasidh., Fl. Parambikulam WLS 78. 2002; V. Chandra. in P. Daniel, Fl. Kerala 1: 804. 2005; Ratheesh Narayanan, Fl. Stud. Wayanad Dist. 252. 2009.
  Malayalam Name(s):
  Tamil name(s):
  English name(s):
  Description: Evergreen trees, to 25 m high, bark greyish-white, smooth; exudation acrid. Leaves simple, alternate, crowded at the tip of branchlets, estipulate; petiole 10-20 mm, stout, glabrous; spur 2, linear, deciduous; lamina 7-17.5 x 4-10 cm, obovate, not suddenly broadened above the middle, base attenuate, apex obtuse or emarginate, margin entire, glabrous, coriaceous; lateral nerves 7-12 pairs, parallel, somewhat ascending, prominent, midrib slightly pubescent when young; intercostae reticulate, prominent. Flowers small, polygamous, in axillary and terminal panicled racemes, tomentum of inflorescence dark purple; calyx cupular, shortly 5-toothed; petals 5, cohering at the base and with the edge of the disc, densely villous inside, valvate, ciliate along the margins; disc lining the calyx tube, obscure in bisexual flowers; stamens 5, inserted out side the disc; filaments subulate; anthers versatile; ovary inferior, 1-celled, ovule pendulous; style 3, divergent; stigmas capitate. Fruit a drupe, obovoid, included within hypocarp, rusty tomentose.
  Habit: Tree
  Flowering & Fruiting: April-May
  District(s): Palakkad, Idukki, Kannur, Thrissur, Wayanad
  Habitat: Evergreen forests
  Distribution: Western Ghats
  Aquatic: No
  Epiphyte(s): No
  Saprophyte: No
  Stem parasite: No
  Root parasite: No
  Flower colour(s): White
  Weed: No
  Monocot/Dicot: Dicotyledonous Plants
  Exotic: No
  Garden: No
  Edible: No
  Vegetable: No
  Endemic to: Western Ghats
  IUCN status:
  Localities: Sholayar, Vallakkadavu, Poonkavanam, Karimala, Orukomban, on way to Kannoth
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