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  Holigarna arnottiana
  Citation:  Holigarna arnottiana Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India 2: 36. 1876; Gamble, Fl. Pres. Madras 268(191). 1918; Manilal & Sivar., Fl. Calicut 73. 1982; Mohanan, Fl. Quilon Dist. 128. 1984; Ansari, Fl. Kasaragod Div. 110. 1985; Ramach. & V.J. Nair, Fl. Cannanore Dist. 116. 1988; Antony, Syst. Stud. Fl. Kottayam Dist. 113. 1989; Babu, Fl. Malappuram Dist. 148. 1990; Vajr., Fl. Palghat Dist. 136. 1990; M. Mohanan & Henry, Fl. Thiruvanthapuram 128. 1994; Subram., Fl. Thenmala Div. 80. 1995; Sasidh. et al., Bot. Stud. Med. Pl. Kerala 21, 29; Sasidh. & Sivar., Fl. Pl. Thrissur For. 121. 1996; Sivar. & Mathew, Fl. Nilambur 169. 1997; Sasidh., Fl. Shenduruny WLS 80. 1997; Sasidh., Fl. Periyar Tiger Reserve 82. 1998; D. Chandra & S.K. Mukh. in N.P. Singh et al., Fl. India 5: 457. 2000; Sasidh., Fl. Parambikulam WLS 78. 2002; Mohanan & Sivad., Fl. Agasthyamala 179. 2002; Anil Kumar et al., Fl. Pathanamthitta 146. 2005; V. Chandra. in P. Daniel, Fl. Kerala 1: 803. 2005; Sunil & Sivadasan, Fl. Alappuzha Dist. 188. 2009; Ratheesh Narayanan, Fl. Stud. Wayanad Dist. 251. 2009.
  Malayalam Name(s): Chera, Cheru, Charu, Kattuchera, Karincheru
  Tamil name(s):
  English name(s):
  Description: Evergreen trees, to 20 m high; bole buttressed; bark 6-8 mm thick, pale brown, rough; exudation milky, caustic, black on drying; young shoot brown tomentose. Leaves simple, alternate, crowded at the tips of branchlets, 8-25 x 2.5-7.5 cm, oblanceolate, apex obtusely acute, base cuneate or attenuate, margin entire, glabrous, coriaceous; petiole 7-15 mm, stout, tomentose; spur 1-2 pairs, deciduous, tomentose; lateral nerves 10-20 pairs, parallel, prominent, intercostae reticulate, prominent. Flowers polygamous, yellowish-brown, 2-3 mm across, in axillary panicles, tomentum of inflorescence pale golden brown. Calyx cupular, 5-fid. Petals 5, cohering at the base and with the edge of the disc, densely villous inside, valvate; disc lining the calyx tube, obscure in bisexual flowers. Stamens 5, inserted outside the disc; filaments subulate; anthers red, versatile. Ovary inferior, 1-celled, ovule pendulous; styles 3, divergent; stigmas capitate. Fruit a drupe, 2.5 cm long, obliquely-ovoid, glabrous, almost entirely included within hypocarp, resinous, acrid; seed parietal.
  Habit: Tree
  Flowering & Fruiting: January-July
  District(s): All Districts
  Medicinal: Yes
  Habitat: Semi-evergreen and evergreen forests, also in the plains
  Distribution: Southern Western Ghats
  Aquatic: No
  Epiphyte(s): No
  Saprophyte: No
  Stem parasite: No
  Root parasite: No
  Flower colour(s): Yellow, White
  Weed: No
  Monocot/Dicot: Dicotyledonous Plants
  Exotic: No
  Garden: No
  Edible: No
  Vegetable: No
  Endemic to: Southern Western Ghats
  IUCN status:
  Localities: Peechi, Vazhachal, Vazhani, Choodal, Koruthode, Orukomban, Aikdau, Karimbam, Parappa, Taliparamba, Kannoth R.F., Dhoni R. F., Thazhakkara, Nedumkayam, Kulathupuzha, Bonaccord
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